TypicalValues

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Typical Values

Other values to add - please let us know

General Type Value Description Reference
Albedo Non Vegetated 0.09 Paved Helsinki Järvi et al. (2014)
Albedo Non Vegetated 0.15 Buildings Helsinki Järvi et al. (2014)
Albedo Non Vegetated 0.19 Bare Soil, Helsinki Järvi et al. (2014)
Albedo Non Vegetated 0.12 Paved Oke (1987)
Albedo Non Vegetated 0.15 Buildings Oke (1987)
Albedo Non Vegetated 0.21 Bare Soil Oke (1987)
Emissivity Non Vegetated 0.95 Paved Oke (1987)
Emissivity Non Vegetated 0.91 Buildings Oke (1987)
Emissivity Non Vegetated 0.93 Bare Soil Oke (1987)
Surface Water storage capacity Non Vegetated 0.48 Paved Davies and Hollis (1981)
Surface Water storage capacity Non Vegetated 0.25 Buildings Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)
Albedo Vegetation 0.10 EveTr
Albedo Vegetation 0.12 DecTr
Albedo Vegetation 0.18 Grass
Albedo Vegetated 0.10 EveTr Helsinki Järvi et al. (2014)
Albedo Vegetated 0.16 DecTr Helsinki Järvi et al. (2014)
Albedo Vegetated 0.19 Grass Helsinki Järvi et al. (2014)
Albedo Vegetated 0.10 EveTr Oke (1987)
Albedo Vegetated 0.18 DecTr Oke (1987)
Albedo Vegetated 0.21 Grass Oke (1987)
Emissivity Vegetated 0.98 EveTr Oke (1987)
Emissivity Vegetated 0.98 DecTr Oke (1987)
Emissivity Vegetated 0.93 Grass Oke (1987)
water Storage Minimum capacity (mm) Vegetated 1.3 EveTr Breuer et al. (2003)
water Storage Minimum capacity (mm) Vegetated 0.3 DecTr Breuer et al. (2003)
water Storage Minimum capacity (mm) Vegetated 1.9 Grass Breuer et al. (2003)
Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] Vegetated 1.3 EveTr Breuer et al. (2003)
Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] Vegetated 0.8 DecTr Grimmond and Oke (1991)
Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] Vegetated 1.9 Grass Breuer et al. (2003)
Albedo Max(leaf on) Vegetated 0.12 DecTr
Albedo Max(leaf on) Vegetated 0.18 Grass
Albedo Max(leaf on) Vegetated 0.10 EveTr Helsinki Järvi et al. (2014)
Albedo Max(leaf on) Vegetated 0.16 DecTr Helsinki Järvi et al. (2014)
Albedo Max(leaf on) Vegetated 0.19 Grass Helsinki Järvi et al. (2014)
Albedo Max(leaf on) Vegetated 0.10 EveTr Oke (1987)
Albedo Max(leaf on) Vegetated 0.18 DecTr Oke (1987)
Albedo Max(leaf on) Vegetated 0.21 Grass Oke (1987)
Emissivity *View factors should be taken into account Vegetated 0.98 EveTr Oke (1987)
Emissivity *View factors should be taken into account Vegetated 0.98 DecTr Oke (1987)
Emissivity *View factors should be taken into account Vegetated 0.93 Grass Oke (1987)
Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min & max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces). Vegetated 1.3 EveTr Breuer et al. (2003)
Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]*Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces). Vegetated 0.3 DecTr Breuer et al. (2003)
Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces). Vegetated 1.9 Grass Breuer et al. (2003)
Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces) Vegetated 1.3 EveTr Breuer et al. (2003)
Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces) Vegetated 0.8 DecTr Grimmond and Oke (1991)
Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces) Vegetated 1.9 Grass Breuer et al. (2003)
AlbedoMin Water 0.1 Water Oke (1987)
AlbedoMax Water 0.1 Water Oke (1987)
Emissivity Water 0.95 Water Oke (1987)
Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] Water 0.5 Water
Maximum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy) Water 0.5 Water
WetThreshold water 0.5 Water
river| etc) or a small value (e.g. 10 mm) if water bodies are very shallow (e.g. fountains). Water 20000 Water
RadMeltFactor Snow 0.0016 Hourly radiation melt factor of snow [mm W-1 h-1]
TempMeltFactor Snow 0.12 Hourly temperature melt factor of snow [mm °C -1 h-1]
AlbedoMin Snow 0-1 Minimum snow albedo [-] 0.18 Järvi et al. (2014)
AlbedoMax *Maximum snow albedo (fresh snow) [-] Snow 0.85 Järvi et al. (2014)
Emissivity *Effective surface emissivity. *View factors should be taken into account Snow 0.99 Snow Järvi et al. (2014)
tau_a *Time constant for snow albedo aging in cold snow [-] Snow 0.018 Järvi et al. (2014)
tau_f *Time constant for snow albedo aging in melting snow [-] Snow 0.11 Järvi et al. (2014)
PrecipiLimAlb Snow 2 Limit for hourly precipitation when the ground is fully covered with snow. Then snow albedo is reset to AlbedoMax [mm]
snowDensMin Snow 100 Fresh snow density [kg m-3]
snowDensMax Snow 400 Maximum snow density [kg m-3]
tau_r *Time constant for snow density ageing [-] Snow 0.043 Järvi et al. (2014)
CRWMin *Minimum water holding capacity of snow [mm] Snow 0.05 Järvi et al. (2014)
CRWMax *Maximum water holding capacity of snow [mm] Snow 0.20 Järvi et al. (2014)
PrecipLimSnow Snow 2.2 Temperature limit when precipitation falls as snow [°C] Auer 1974
SoilDepth Snow 350 Depth of sub-surface soil store [mm] *depth of soil beneath the surface
SoilStoreCap Soil 150 *Capacity of sub-surface soil store [mm]
  • how much water can be stored in the sub-surface soil when at maximum capacity.

(SoilStoreCap must not be greater than SoilDepth.)

SatHydraulicCond Soil 0.0005 Hydraulic conductivity for saturated soil [mm s-1]
SoilDensity Soil 1.16 Soil density [kg m-3]
InfiltrationRate Soil Infiltration rate [mm h-1]
OBS_SMDepth Soil Depth of soil moisture measurements [mm]
OBS_SMCap Soil Maxiumum observed soil moisture [m3 m-3 or kg kg-1]
OBS_SoilNotRocks Soil Fraction of soil without rocks [-]

Storage Heat Flux Related

OHM Coefficients

  • Values determined from the literature
  • If you have recommendations for others to be included please let us know.
  • In the model run, canyons are excluded
Surface type Description Author (data source) a1 a2 a3
Canyon E-W canyon Yoshida et al. (1990, 1991) 0.71 0.04 -39.7
N-S canyon Nunez (1974) 0.32 0.01 -27.7
Vegetation Mixed forest McCaughey (1985) 0.11 0.11 -12.3
Short grass Doll et al. (1985) 0.32 0.54 -27.4
Bare soil Novak (1982) 0.38 0.56 -27.3
Bare soil (wet) Fuchs & Hadas (1972) 0.33 0.07 -34.9
Bare soil (dry) Fuchs & Hadas (1972) 0.65 0.43 -36.5
Bare soil Asaeda & Ca (1993) 0.36 0.27 -42.4
Water Shallow – Turbid Souch et al. (1998) 0.50 0.21 -39.1
Unirrigated grass (Crops) Grimmond et al. (1993) 0.21 0.11 -16.1
Short irrigated grass Grimmond et al. (1993) 0.35 -0.01 -26.3
Roof Tar and gravel, Vancouver Yap (1973) 0.17 0.10 -17.0
Uppsala Taesler (1980) 0.44 0.57 -28.9
Membrane and concrete, Kyoto Yoshida et al. (1990,1991) 0.82 0.34 -55.7
Average gravel/tar/conc. flat industrial, Vancouver Meyn (2000) 0.25 0.92 -22.0
Dry --gravel/tar/conc. flat industrial, Vancouver Meyn (2000) 0.25 0.70 -22.0
Wet -- gravel/tar/conc. flat industrial, Vancouver Meyn (2000) 0.25 0.70 -22.0
Bitumen spread over flat industrial membrane, Vancouver Meyn (2000) 0.06 0.28 -3.0
Asphalt shingle on plywood residential roof , Vancouver Meyn (2000) 0.14 0.33 -6.0
Star – high albedo asphalt shingle residential roof Meyn (2000) 0.09 0.18 -1.0
Star - Ceramic Tile Meyn (2000) 0.07 0.26 -6.0
Star - Slate Tile Meyn (2000) 0.08 0.32 0.0
Helsinki – Suburban Järvi et al. (2014) 0.19 0.54 -15.1
Montreal – Suburban Järvi et al. (2014) 0.12 0.24 -4.5
Montreal – Urban Järvi et al. (2014) 0.26 0.85 -21.4
Impervious Concrete Doll et al. (1985) 0.81 0.10 -79.9
Concrete Asaeda & Ca (1993) 0.85 0.32 -28.5
Asphalt Narita et al. (1984) 0.36 0.23 -19.3
Asphalt Asaeda & Ca (1993) 0.64 0.32 -43.6
Asphalt Anandakumar (1999) 0.82 0.68 -20.1
Asphalt (winter) Anandakumar (1999) 0.72 0.54 -40.2
Asphalt (summer) Anandakumar (1999) 0.83 -0.83 -24.6


+ESTM Values