SUEWS模型

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Contents

Reference for this V2016a Manual

Ward, L Järvi, S Onomura, F Lindberg, A Gabey, CSB Grimmond 2016 SUEWS Manual V2016a, http://urban-climate.net/umep/SUEWS

Department Of Meteorology, Unversity of Reading, Reading, UK

简介

Overview of SUEWS

Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) (Järvi et al. 2011[1]) is able to simulate the urban radiation, energy and water balances using only commonly measured meteorological variables and information about the surface cover. SUEWS utilizes an evaporation-interception approach (Grimmond et al. 1991 [2]), similar to that used in forests, to model evaporation from urban surfaces.

Surfaces Considered in SUEWS

The model uses seven surface types: paved, buildings, evergreen trees/shrubs, deciduous trees/shrubs, grass, bare soil and water. The surface state for each surface type at each time step is calculated from the running water balance of the canopy where the evaporation is calculated from the Penman-Monteith equation. The soil moisture below each surface type (excluding water) is taken into account.


Horizontal movement of water above and below ground level is allowed. The user can specify the model timestep, but 5 min is strongly recommended. The main output file is provided at a resolution of 60 min by default. Timestamps refer to the end of the averaging period. The model provides the radiation and energy balance components, surface and soil wetness, surface and soil runoff and the drainage for each surface (see section 5).

Processes in the Model

The following sub-models are used within SUEWS:

Net all wave radiation

  1. NARP (Net All-wave Radiation Parameterization, Offerle et al. 2003 [3] , Loridan et al. 2011[4] ) radiation scheme.
Flux Methods Comments
Incoming solar radiation From Observations
Re-Analysis data WATCH, WFDEI
Modelled
Outgoing shortave radiation Modelled Dependent on the surface albedo
Observed Possible to use observations
Incoming long wave radiation Modelled Options: Paper Loridan et al. (2011)
Observed
Reanalysis WATCH, WFDEI
Outgoing long wave radiation Modelled Choices Paper Loridan et al. (2011)
Observed

Benchmark/example data sets

  1. London
  2. Helsinki

Anthropogenic Heat Flux

  1. Modelled simple anthropogenic heat flux models
    • Järvi et al. (2011[1])
    • Loridan et al. (2011)
  2. Values can ben suppl
    • Pre-calculated from another source
      • For example
        • LUCY (Allen et al. IJC, Lindberg et al.)
        • GreaterQF (Iamarino et al. )

Storage Heat Flux

Three models are available

  1. OHM (Objective Hysteresis Model, Grimmond et al. 1991 [5], Grimmond & Oke 1999a[6], 2002[7]) for the storage heat flux.
  1. ESTM (Element Surface Temperature Method, Offerle et al., 2005[8]) for the storage heat flux.
  2. AnOHM Analytical OHM
  3. Alternatively observations can be used.

Benchmark Data

  1. ESTM
    • Sacramento data

Turbulent Heat Fluxes

LUMPS (Local-scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme, Grimmond & Oke 2002[7]) does the initial turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes calculation for stability (#Differences between SUEWS, LUMPS and FRAISE). Note both models’ outputs are provided in all runs.

Critical decisions

  1. SUEWS vs LUMPS
  2. conductances

Example data sets

  • Vancouver (Option 1 Conductances, SUEWS)
  • London (Option 2 Conductances, SUEWS)

Water balance

  1. A simple urban water-use model (Grimmond and Oke 1991[2]).
    • Soil moisture
    • Runoff
      • Selection of drainage coefficients

Irrigation

    • Model (Jarvi et al. 2011)
    • Observations

Convective Boundary Layer

  1. A convective boundary layer (CBL) slab model (Cleugh and Grimmond 2001[9]) calculates the CBL height, temperature and humidity during daytime (Onomura et al. 2015[10])
  2. Benchmark/example data
    • Sacramento

Snowmelt

  1. A snowmelt model (Järvi et al. 2014[11]).

Thermal Comfort

  1. SOLWEIG: The solar and longwave environmental irradiance geometry model (Lindberg et al. 2008[12], Lindberg and Grimmond 2011[13]), a 2D radiation model to estimate mean radiant temperature.

Using the Model

The model distributed with this manual can be run in two standard ways:

  1. for an individual area
  2. for multiple areas that are contiguous

There is no requirement for the areas to be of any particular shape but here we refer to them as ‘grids’.

Overview of scales Source:[10]

Model applicability: Local scale – so forcing data should be above the height of the roughness elements (trees, buildings).

Preparing to run the model

The following provides some comments to help with the model setup.

Summary
*Preparatory reading
*Example data
  1. Read the relevant papers and the manual.

Decide what type of model run you are interested in.

Things to consider Available in this release
LUMPS Yes – not standalone
SUEWS – point or one area
  • Fractions of different land cover types
  • Heights of buildings
Yes
SUEWS multiple grids or areas Yes
SUEWS/ with Boundary Layer (BL) Yes
SUEWS with snow Does snow clearing occur? No
SUEWS with SOLWEIG Yes
SUEWS with SOLWEIG and BL No
Other decisions These need to be considered in all of the above options
External water use Does this occur? Eg street washing, garden irrigation Yes
Anthropogenic heat flux Is this likely to be important? Energy use from transport, buildings etc Yes

Visit the website to receive a link to download the program and example data files

  1. Select the appropriate compiled version of the model to download. Note, as the definition of long double precision varies between computers (e.g. Mac vs Windows) slightly different results may occur in the output files.

Compiled versions of SUEWS Note- for windows there is an installation version which will put the programs and all the files into the appropriate place There is also a version linked to QGIS  UMEP If you are not using the Windows setup release – see Appendix F

Files and Example data

  1. Files included consist of
    • Programme and required libraries
    • Test/Example Input files
    • Test/Example Output files
Example File names Used for Brief Description
Sm “Sm”, year is 2011 SUEWS single grid
SUEWS muliple grid
Snow
“Sc”, year is 1991 CBL *Data set are for Sacramento (see Onomura et al. 2015) for more details.
  • The setting for CBL model is done in CBLinput.nml. Initial data file name and its path is set in CBLinput.nml. *The format of output file is “SSss_YYYY_BL.txt”.
Subfolders DSMs and SVFs SOLWEIG *In this release, example data from Göteborg, Sweden is included.
  • Model domain is 200 x 200 m and the pixel resolution is 1 m.
  • The data could be used for any other location.
  • Files and subfolders names is set in SOLWEIGinput.nml. Subfolder DSMs includes digital surface models of
  1. Ground and buildings
  2. Vegetation canopy heights
  3. Vegetation trunks zone height.
  • Also a grid specifying location of building pixels should be included. Subfolder SVFs included sky view factor grids that are used. We recommend to use the [SOLWEIG]interface to create SVF grids to create SVF grids. Consult the SOLWEIG-manual for more information.

Example Inputs/Outputs are provided for:

Site Code Location What special aspects this data set Orginal reference for the data Modelling details provided
He Helsinki Snow performance Järvi et al. (2008) Järvi et al. 2015
Sc Sacarmento Boundary layer height Cleugh and Grimmond (2000) Onomura et al. (2015)
Kc London UMEP Kotthaus and Grimmond (2014) Ward et al. (2016)
  • Lindberg et al. (in prep)
  • Ward et al. (in prep)

In the following SS – is the site code, tt time interval. See Table above for the actual sites where data examples are provided for.

Filename Description Input/Output Part of model
SS1_2010_data_tt.txt Meteorological input file Input SUEWS single grid
InitialConditionsSm1_2010_2010.nml(+) Initial conditions Input SUEWS single grid
SS_Filechoices.txt Run options Output
SS_2011_5min.txt (Optional) 5-min resolution Output
SS_2011_60.txt 60-min output file Output
SS_DailyState.txt Daily state variables for each year Output
CBL_initial_data.txt (*) Initial data for CBL model Input BL
Sonde_SS_YYYY_MMDD_HHMM.txt (*) Optional: file for radiosondes data Input BL
SS1_YYYY_BL.txt CBL model output file Output BL

(*) filename is set in CBLinput.nml.

(+)There is a second file InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY_end.nml or InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY+1.nml in the input directory. At the end of the run, and at the end of each year of the run, the state is written out so that this information could be used to initialize further model runs.

Run test data

Before running the model for your own data – it is good to make certain that you can run the test data and get the same results. To run the model you can use Command Prompt (in the directory where the programme is located type the model name) or just double click the executable file. Please see Troubleshooting if you have problems running the model.

Suews_Wrapper_V2015a.exe

It is recommended that you make a copy of the example output files and put them somewhere else so you can compare the results. When you run the program it will write over the supplied files.

Filename Purpose Place to put it
SUEWS_wrapper_V2015a.exe This runs the program and prepares files and output Directory where run programme
SUEWS_V2015a.exe Actual program Directory where run programme
RunControl.nml Model run options Same directory as programme
SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt Inputs for anthropogenic heat flux Input directory
SUEWS_Conductance.txt Inputs for surface conductances Input directory
SUEWS_NonVeg.txt Inputs for non-vegetated areas Input directory
SUEWS_Irrigation.txt Input for irrigation Input directory
SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt OHM coefficients Input directory
SUEWS_Veg.txt Inputs for vegetated areas Input directory
SUEWS_Profiles.txt Inputs for profiles Input directory
SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm Spreadsheet for creating data files (anywhere) for creating input files
SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt *** Main site file***** Input directory
SUEWS_Snow.txt Inputs for snow Input directory
SUEWS_Soil.txt Inputs for soil area Input directory
SUEWS_Water.txt Inputs for water areas Input directory
SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt *** Within grid water distribution ** Input directory

Preparation of data

  1. Gather the data required for the SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt

To describe an area to be modelled that grid has a set of characteristics that are specified in the SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt file on one row. The choices are often selected by a code for a particular set of conditions. For example, a soil type (links to SUEWS_Soil.txt), characteristics of deciduous trees ((links to SUEWS_Veg.txt), etc. The intent is to build a library of characteristics for different types of urban areas. The codes must be integer values and must be unique within all files except SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt (otherwise the model will return an error).

Land cover

  • For each grid, the land cover must be classified using the following surface types:
General Type Specific Type File where characteristics are specified
Non-vegetated Built area SUEWS_NonVeg.txt
Paved area SUEWS_NonVeg.txt
Bare soil SUEWS_NonVeg.txt
Vegetation Evergreen trees and shrubs SUEWS_Veg.txt
Deciduous trees and shrubs SUEWS_Veg.txt
Grass SUEWS_Veg.txt
Water Water SUEWS_Water.txt
Snow Snow SUEWS_Snow.txt

The surface cover fractions are critical. Make certain that the different surface cover fractions are appropriate for your site.

How to obtain appropriate values?

Websites like Bing Maps and Google Maps allow you to see aerial images of your sites or areas of interest. These allow you to determine the land cover types and their relative proportions. There are additionally a number of remote sensing resources that can be used. UMEP version – allows for a direct link to a GIS environment – using QGIS

Anthropogenic heat flux

The population density is needed as an input for LUMPS and SUEWS to calculate QF. If you have no information about the population of the site we recommend that you use the LUCY model to get a first estimate of QF. For more information, see the following sources: [14] [15] • The program can be downloaded from here

Data Entry

  1. Enter the data into the spreadsheet and run the macro, or edit the text (txt) files
  2. Enter the data for your site into the xlsm spreadsheet SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm and then use the macro to create the text files. The macro needs to be edited to indicate which directory the files are to be saved to otherwise you will get an error saying it cannot write the files.
Method to run Macro

When you are ready to run the macro (after entering your data in the spreadsheet).

  1. Enable the content – you are normally asked this when you open the spreadsheet. Up till this time it does not need to be enabled.
  2. Under View – select Macros
  3. There you will see “ SaveAllSheets”
  4. Select Edit
  5. You will then see the Macro content (the part highlighted in cyan below need to be changed to the directory where you want the output files to go to:
Sub SaveAllSheets()
For Each Sheet In ActiveWorkbook.Sheets
   Sheet.Select
   ActiveWorkbook.SaveAs Filename:=" C:\InputDataForSUEWS\" & Sheet.Name & ".txt", FileFormat:=xlText
Next Sheet
End Sub
  1. Save this
  2. Close
  3. Then Run
If there is a problem
  • Check that the location you have identified is a location that you have permission to write to/exists.
  • It is recommended to close the spreadsheet before running the actual model code.

Alternative #2, the text (txt) files can be edited directly. The sample files provide a template to create your own files which can be edited with a text editor directly.

Note that in all txt files:

  1. The first two rows are headers. The first row is the column number; the second row is the column name.
  2. The names and order of the columns should not be altered from the templates, as these are checked by the model and errors will be returned if particular columns cannot be found.
  3. All files should have two rows with -9 in column 1 as their last two rows.
  4. “!” indicates a comment – so after that the material will not be read by the model.
  5. If data is unavailable or not required, enter the value -999 in the correct place in the input file(s).
  6. Ensure that the codes used to link between txt files are unique for each of the txt files (i.e. for all files except SiteSelect.txt, each row must have a unique code).
  7. Ensure the units are correct for all input information!
  8. See the individual file descriptions for details
  9. See example help

In addition to these text files, the following files are also needed to run the model.

Alternative #3 Use [UMEP]

==+=Prepare the RunControl.nml file===+ In the RunControl.nml file the site name (SS_) and file paths for the model input as well as output are given. This means before running the model (even the sample) you must either

  1. open the RunControl.nml file and edit the input and output file paths and the site name (with a [editor]) so that they are correct for your setup
  2. or create the directories specified in the RunControl.nml file

From the given site identification the model identifies the input files and generates the output files. For example if you specify

FileOutputPath = “C:\FolderName\SUEWSOutput\” and use site identification code (e.g. Sm_2011, where Sm is SS) the model creates an output file 
C:\FolderName\SUEWSOutput\Sm_2011_60.txt. (Remember to add the last backslash in windows and slash in Linux/Mac)

If the file paths are not correct the program will return an error (Run-time Error, File path not found, see error messages) when run, and write the error to the problems.txt file. Note that when running multiple grids all files should be in the same input directory.

Prepare the meteorological forcing data

The model is designed to use (60 min***) hourly input data, which is interpolated to the model time step (e.g. 5 min). See details about the meteorological data to learn more about choices of data input. Each grid can have its own meteorological forcing file, or a single file can be used for all grids.

Prepare the Initial Conditions file

Information about the surface state and meteorological conditions just before the start of the run are provided in the Initial Conditions file. An Initial Conditions file is needed for each grid.

Run the model

  • To run the model you can use Command Prompt (in the directory where the programme is located type the model name) or
  • just double click the executable file. Please see Troubleshooting if you have problems running the model.
Suews_Wrapper_V2015a.exe

Or you can double click the file and it will run Suews_Wrapper_V2015a.exe

Analyse the output

Characteristic Things to check
Albedo *Is the bulk albedo correct?
  • This is critical because a small error has an impact on all the fluxes (energy and hydrology)
  • If you have measurements of outgoing shortwave radiation compare these with the modelled values.
  • How do the values compare to literature vales for your area?
Leaf area index -

LAI

*Does the phenology look appropriate? What does the Leaf area index look like?
  • Are the leaves on the trees at approximately the right time of the year
  • Plot the results from the daily state file

Further help with starting to prepare the data

The input data required for SUEWS can be summarised as follows:

  1. Meteoroglocial forcing data for the entire period to be modelled and knowledge of the surface state and meteorological conditions immediately before the start of the run (if these initial conditions are not known, it is usually possible to determine suitable values by running the model and using the output at the end of the run to infer the conditions at the start of the run).
  2. The location of the site (latitude, longitude, altitude).
  3. Information about the characteristics of the surface, including land cover, heights of buildings and trees, radiative characteristics (e.g. albedo, emissivity), drainage characteristics, soil characteristics (soil moisture can either be provided as a timeseries of observed soil moisture in the meteorological forcing file if these data are available – currently not recommended/UNTESTED or modelled based on characteristics specificed in SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm), snow characteristics, phenological characteristics (e.g. seasonal cycle of LAI).
  4. Information about human behaviour, including energy use and water use (e.g. for irrigation), and snow clearing (if applicable). The anthropogenic energy use and water use may be provided as a timeseries in the meteorological forcing file if these data are available, or modelled based on details provided in SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm. These details include population density, hourly and weekly profiles of energy and water use, information about the proportion of properties using irrigation and the type of irrigation (automatic or manual).

A table is provided below to record the availability of input data and aid completion of the input files needed for the model. See Section 3.2 for details about files.


Recommended details to record when gathering input data

The following table can be used to record the availability of input data and aid completion of the input files needed for the model. See specific Sections about files.

As an example for London: **** Create a link to the full file***

Information required to run SUEWS How is this information provided to SUEWS? File [ Column no.] Information source and details (time, spatial extent). Include potentially useful datasets if information is not available directly. What must be assumed? Are there potential problems? Are there restrictions on the data use (e.g. licensing)?
Surface cover fractions (Paved, Built, EveTr, DecTr, Grass, BSoil, Water) SiteSelect.txt [ 12-18 ] Data source: Neighbourhood Statistics http:\\www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/

2011 Statistical Geography Hierarchy, based on Generalised Land Use Database 2005 (2001 also available). Data for each borough. Area of Domestic Buildings, Non-domestic Buildings, Road, Path, Rail, Domestic Gardens, Greenspace, Water, Other Land Uses, Unclassified Land. (LandUse2005_Boroughs_StatGeogHierarchy2011.csv) Surface cover categories provided are not the same as those required for SUEWS, so other information or assumptions are required. 20% land cover in London is trees (GLA, Connecting Londoners with Trees and Woodlands, LondonTrees_ltwf_highlights.pdf).

Surface cover within gardens (GLA, London: Garden City? LondonGardenCity.pdf)

Assume 1/5 trees are evergreen; 4/5 are deciduous (no real basis for this assumption).


Input and output files

The input files required for SUEWS are listed in Table 4.1 (see other tables in this and the following section). For the user defined filenames (i.e. SSss_YYYY) SSss represents a site name (usually a relevant two letter code is applied), and YYYY the year (four digit year is used) or grid identification. The last column indicates whether the input file is needed one per run (1/run), for each year (1/year) or once per day (1/day)

Input and Output files

(input filenames are hyperlinked to the appropriate section where more detail is provided)

[B] filse used with the boundary layer BLUEWS - therefore only needed if this is selected
[E] files associated with ESTM storage heat flux models
File Name Description When Needed [Used]
Input (see section)
RunControl.nml Namelist file paths and run options. 1/run
SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt Inputs for anthropogenic heat flux 1/run
SUEWS_Conductance.txt Inputs for surface conductances 1/run
SUEWS_NonVeg.txt Inputs for non-vegetated areas 1/run
SUEWS_Irrigation.txt Inputs for irrigation 1/run
SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt OHM coefficients 1/run
SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt ESTM coefficients
SUEWS_Veg.txt Inputs for vegetated areas 1/run
SUEWS_Profiles.txt Inputs for profiles 1/run
SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm Spreadsheet for creating data files ---
SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt *** Main file to specify all areas for run ***** List of the characteristics for each grid for each time period 1/run
SUEWS_Snow.txt Inputs for snow 1/run
SUEWS_Soil.txt Inputs for soil area 1/run
SUEWS_Water.txt Inputs for water areas 1/run
SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt Within grid water distribution 1/run
InitialConditionsSm1_2010_2010.nml Initial conditions 1/grid
Sm1_2010_data_tt.txt

Sm2_2010_data_tt.txt, etc

Meteorological input file 1/grid/year or

1/year

CBLinput.nml Namelist file paths, run options and input parameters for CBL model 1/run [B]
CBL_initial_data.txt Initial data for CBL model 1/day [B]
ESTMinput.nml Run options and input parameters for ESTM model 1/run [E]
Output (see section)
SSss_YYYY_tt.txt Model output with timestep tt
SSss_DailyState.txt Status of the daily storages and other status values
SS_FileChoices.txt Run choice options
InitialStateSSss_YYYY.nml At the end of the run a file is written that is the initial conditions (it is also written at the end of each year). This goes into the input directory, YYYYZ is typically the year +1 otherwise it will be the same year-end
CBL_id.txt CBL model output files [B]

Input files

The model allows you to input a large number of parameters to describe the characteristics of your site. You should not assume that the example values provided in files or in the tables below are appropriate. Values in blue are examples of recommended values (see the appropriate reference to help decide how appropriate these are for your site/model domain); values in green need to be set (i.e. changed from the example) for your site/model domain.

Values given are examples of recommended values
Values given are example values and need to be changed for your site/model domain.

Hint: All files except those with .nml as their extensions should have two lines of -9 in column 1. This allows files saved using different operating systems to be read.


RunControl.nml

The file RunControl.nml contains the model run options and two default variable values (#Variables and parameters in RunControl.nmlTable). This file should be located in the same directory as the executable file. The type of this folder should be

&RunControl
Parameters and variables from Table below in any order
/

In Linux and Mac, please add an empty line after the end Slash. This file is not case sensitive.


Variables and parameters in RunControl.nml

These can be in any order.

VI Variable that the parameter influences F anthropogenic heat flux
A all fluxes R radiation S Heat storage W multiple water balance fluxes
L LUMPS M multiple heat fluxes N no fluxes
ET evergreen trees and shrubs DT deciduous trees and shrubs GR grass W water
Name VI Description Values Comments Model run options
AnthropHeatChoice F Determines if QF and how is calculated 0 Uses values provided in the forcing file (SSss_YYYY_data.txt). If value missing, the defaultQf will be used. If user does not want to calculate QF or supply values, then the values in the meteorological input file should be zero.
1 Calculated according to Loridan et al. (2011)[4]. Coefficients are selected in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt from SUEWS_AnthropognicHeat.txt. If values are provided in the Meteorological input file (SSss_YYYY_data.txt) the modelled values will be used.
2 Recommended!.Calculated according to Järvi et al. (2011) [16]. Coefficients are set in SUEWS_siteSelect.txt from SUEWS_AnthropognicHeat.txt Diurnal pattern in SUEWS_Profiles.txt. If values are provided in the Meteorological input file (SSss_YYYY_data.txt) the modelled values will be used.
CBLuse Determines if a CBL slab model is used to calculate temperature and humidity. 0 CBL model is NOT used. SUEWS and LUMPS use temperature and humidity provided in Meteorological input file.
1 CBL model is used. SUEWS and LUMPS use the modelled temperature and humidity.
NetRadiationChoice R Determines if radiation is observed or modelled (NARP) (Offerle et al. 2003 [17], Loridan et al. 2011 [4]) L↓ downwelling longwave radiation Q* net all wave radiation 0 *Observed values of Q* used
1 *Modelled, but *L↓ observations supplied in forcing data. *Albedo zenith angle not accounted for
2 Modelled with L↓ modelled using cloud cover fraction supplied in forcing data file (see Loridan et al. 2010). *Albedo zenith angle not accounted for
3 *Modelled with L↓ modelled using air temperature and relative humidity data (see Loridan et al. 2010). *Albedo zenith angle not accounted for
Following not recommended in this release
100 in forcing data. Albedo zenith angle modelled. SSss_YYYY_NARPOut.txt file
200 Modelled with L↓ modelled using cloud cover fraction supplied in forcing data file. Albedo zenith angle accounted for .SSss_YYYY_NARPOut.txt file
300 Modelled with L↓ modelled using air temperature and relative humidity data (see Loridan et al. 2011 [4]). Albedo zenith angle accounted for. SSss_YYYY_NARPOut.txt file
gsChoice W,M Surface conductance choice CondCode in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.*
1 surface conductance equation in Jarvi et al. (2011) 100[*]
2 new formulation (Ward et al. at ICUC9, July 2015) 200[*]
Note[*] can use own coefficients for either form (i.e.CondCode in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt and SUEWS_Conductance.txt Coefficients in SUEWS_Conductance.txt selected using CondCode in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt must be compatible with gsChoice.
QSChoice S Selects which method is used to determine storage heat flux ΔQS 1 Modelled using the objective hysteresis model (OHM) ) (Grimmond et al. 1991, Grimmond & Oke 1999a, 2002). The model is based on surface types
2 Observed ΔQs values are used from the meteorological input file
3
4 Modelled using the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM) (Offerle et al., 2005) but not used for the energy balance calculation
13
14 Modelled using the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM) (Offerle et al., 2005) and used for the energy balance calculation
OHMIncQF S Specifies whether the storage heat flux calculation uses Q* (0) or Q* + QF (1, recommended) 0 Q* only
Q* + QF recommended
RoughLen_heat M Method to calculate roughness length for heat to be used 1 as 0.1z0m
2 according to Kawai et al. (2009) (recommended)
3 according to Voogt and Grimmond (2000)
4 according to Kanda et al. (2007)
smd_choice W Soil moisture deficit 0 Modelled – need to provide values for SoilDepth, SoilStoreCap and SatHydraulicConduct in SUEWS_Soil.txt. (Recommended in current release).
1 Measured Volumetric data supplied in meteorological data file – need values for SoilDepthMeas, SoilRocks and smCap in SUEWS_soil.txt. Observed SM options need checking
2 Measured Gravimetric data supplied in forcing data file. Need to supply values for SoilDensity, SoilDepthMeas, SoilRocks and smCap in SUEWS_soil.txt Observed SM options need checking
SnowFractionChoice M Defines the method to calculate snow plan area fraction (set to 2). Used only if SnowUse=1.
SnowUse M 1 snow calculations are done
0 no snow calculations are done
SOLWEIGuse N Determines if a high resolution radiation model to calculate mean radiant temperate should be used (SOLWEIG). NOTE: this option will considerably slow down the model since SOLWEIG is a 2D model. 1 Grid of mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) are calculated and saved based on high resolution digital surface models.
0 No Tmrt is calculated
StabilityMethod M Defines which atmospheric stability functions are used 0-1 Not used
2 Recommended! Momentum: Unstable: Dyer (1974), modified by Högstrom (1988), Stable: Van Ulden & Holtslag (1985) Heat:Dyer (1974), modified by Högstrom (1988)
3 Momentum: Campbell & Norman eqn 7.27 p 97, Heat: Unstable: Campbell & Norman , Stable: Dyer (1974) modifed by Högstrom (1988);
4 Momentum Businger et al. (1971) modifed by Högstrom (1988) Heat: Businger et al. (1971) modifed by Högstrom (1988)
WU_choice W External water use 0 Modelled using options set in SUEWS_Irrigation.txt
1 Observations are used
z0_method A Determines how aerodynamic roughness length (z0m) and zero displacement height (zd) are obtained 1 Values in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt file are used. (z0m and zd are adjusted with time to account for seasonal variation in porosity of deciduous trees) not currently
2 Calculated from mean building and tree heights with “Rule of Thumb” (Grimmond and Oke 1999) Heights must be given in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt
3 Calculated using heights, plan area fraction and frontal areal index based on the MacDonald et al. (1998) method. Heights and Frontal area Index must be given in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt
useRainModel M Precipitation scaling related, Activates statistical downscaling of rainfall time series from input data to 5-minute resolution 0 Distribute accumulated rainfall evenly across 5-min steps
1 Use statistical downscaling
File related
FileCode A Total site identification code (e.g. SSss)
FileInputPath A File path with the required input files.
FileOutputPath A File path where the output files are created.
SkipHeaderSiteInfo A Number of header lines to skip in SiteSelect input file (2 by default)
SkipHeaderMet A Number of header lines to skip in meteorological input file (1 by default)
MultipleMetFiles A Specifies whether one single met file is used for all grids (0) or a separate met file is provided for each grid (1). If met files are provided for each grid, the grid number should appear in the file name (e.g. Sm1_2010_data_tt.txt, Sm2_2010_data_tt.txt, etc); otherwise the grid number should be that of the first grid (e.g. Sm1_2010_data_tt.txt).
KeepTstepFilesIn Specifies whether input files at the resolution of the model timestep should be deleted (0) or kept (1). These files may be large, so to save disk space set to 0.
KeepTstepFilesOut Specifies whether output files at the resolution of the model timestep should be deleted (0) or kept (1). These files may be large, so to save disk space set to 0.
WriteSurfsFile Specifies whether an output file at the resolution of the model timestep containing all the water balance, energy balance and snow variables for each of the surfaces should be written (1) or not (0). These files may be large, so to save disk space set to 0. **Not currently used, set to 0.**
Time related
TIMEZONE R Time zone relative to UTC (Note: east is positive) [Units: h]
Tstep A Model timestep. A value of 300 s (5 min) is strongly recommended. The time step cannot be less than 1 min or greater than 10 min, and must be a whole number of minutes that divide into an hour (i.e. options are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 minutes or 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 600 s). [Units: s]
Height
z M Height of the meteorological forcing data – the most important height is that of the wind speed measurement [Units: m]

SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt

For each time period and each grid area SUEWS needs to have the site specific surface cover information and other input parameters may vary. The purpose of file SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt is to list for each time period and grid area these characteristics. In this file the column order is important. The model currently requires a new row for each year of the model run. All rows in SiteSelect will be read by the model and run.

USE Column
MU Parameters which must be supplied and must be specific for the site/grid being run (i.e. unique to that grid).
MD Parameters which must be supplied and must be specific for the site/grid being run (but default values may be ok if these values are not known specifically for the site).
O Parameters that are optional, depending on the model settings in RunControl. Set any parameters that are not used/not known to ‘-999’.
L Codes that are used to link between the input files. These codes are required but their values are completely arbitrary, providing that they link the input files in the correct way. The user should choose these codes, bearing in mind that the codes they match up with in column 1 of the corresponding input file must be unique within that file. Codes must be integers. Note that the codes must match up with column 1 of the corresponding input file, even if those parameters are not used (in which case set all columns except column 1 to ‘-999’ in the corresponding input file), otherwise the model run will fail.

In the example below “!” indicates comments in the file. Comments are not read by the programme so they can be used by the user to provide notes for their interpretation of the contents. This is strongly recommended

SUEWS_siteSelect.txt

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 MU Grid 1 Number of the grid area that is being characterized.

Grid numbers must be consecutive but they do not need to start at 1 (e.g. 33404, 33405, 33406, etc). All grids must be present for all years.

These grid numbers are referred to in GridConnections (columns 58-73).

The two last lines in this column must read: -9 This indicates that the last lines have been reached (using two lines allows differences in computer file savings to be dealt with).

2 MU Year 2011 Year [YYYY]

Years must be continuous.

3 MU StartDLS 86 Start of the day light savings [DOY]

In northern hemisphere example, day light saving starts on day of year 86. See section on Day Light Savings

4 MU EndDLS 303 End of the day light savings [DOY]

In northern hemisphere example, day light saving finishes on 303. See section on Day Light Savings

5 MU lat 60.00 Latitude for the centre of the grid [decimal degrees]

Use coordinate system WGS84. Positive values are northern hemisphere (negative southern hemisphere). Used in radiation calculations. Note, if the total modelled area is small the latitude and longitude could be the same for each grid but small differences in radiation will not be determined. If you are defining the latitude and longitude differently between grids make certain that you provide enough decimal places.

6 MU lng -18.20 Longitude for the centre of the grid [decimal degrees]

Use coordinate system WGS84. Positive values are to the west (negative values are to the east). See latitude for more details.

7 MU SurfaceArea 75.3 SurfaceArea [ha]

The area of the grid.

8 MU Alt 25.0 Altitude [m]

Mean topographic height above sea-level. Used for both the radiation and water flow between grids.

9 MD id 1 Day [DOY]

Set to 1 in this version

10 MD ih 0 Hour

Set to 0 in this version

11 MD imin 0 Minute

Set to 0 in this version

12 MU Fr_Paved 0.20 Surface cover fraction of paved surfaces [-]

Areal cover fraction of paved surfaces (roads, pavements, car parks). e.g. 20% of the grid is covered with paved surfaces. Columns 12 to 18 must sum to 1.

13 MU Fr_Bldgs 0.20 Surface cover fraction of buildings [-]
14 MU Fr_EveTr 0.10 Surface cover fraction of evergreen trees and shrubs [-]
15 MU Fr_DecTr 0.10 Surface cover fraction of deciduous trees and shrubs [-]
16 MU Fr_Grass 0.30 Surface cover fraction of grass [-]
17 MU Fr_Bsoil 0.05 Surface cover fraction of bare soil or unmanaged land [-]
18 MU Fr_Water 0.05 Surface cover fraction of open water [-]

(e.g. river, lakes, ponds, swimming pools)

19 MU IrrFr_EveTr 0.50 Fraction of evergreen trees that are irrigated [-]

e.g. 50% of the evergreen trees/shrubs are irrigated

20 MU IrrFr_DecTr 0.20 Fraction of deciduous trees that are irrigated [-]
21 MU IrrFr_Grass 0.70 Fraction of grass that is irrigated [-]
22 MU H_Bldgs 10 Mean building height [m]
23 MU H_EveTr 15 Mean height of evergreen trees [m]
24 MU H_DecTr 15 Mean height of deciduous trees [m]
25 O z0 0.6 Roughness length for momentum [m]

Value supplied here is used if z0_method = 1 in 4.1 RunControl.nml; otherwise set to -999 and a value will be calculated by the model (z0_method = 2, 3).

26 O Zd 1.5 Zero-plane displacement [m]

Value supplied here is used if z0_method = 1 in 4.1 RunControl.nml; otherwise set to -999 and a value will be calculated by the model (z0_method = 2, 3).

27 O FAI_Bldgs 0.1 Frontal area index for buildings [-]

Required if z0_method = 3 in 4.1 RunControl.nml.

28 O FAI_EveTr 0.2 Frontal area index for evergreen trees [-]

Required if z0_method = 3 in 4.1 RunControl.nml.

29 O FAI_DecTr 0.2 Frontal area index for deciduous trees [-]

Required if z0_method = 3 in 4.1 RunControl.nml.

30 O PopDensDay 30.7 Daytime population density (i.e. workers, tourists) [people ha-1]

Not used in current version of the model.

31 O PopDensNight 10.2 Night-time population density (i.e. residents) [people ha-1]

Required if AnthropHeatChoice = 2 in 4.1 RunControl.nml.

32 L Code_Paved 331 Code for Paved surface characteristics

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, which contains the attributes describing paved areas in this grid for this year. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt. e.g. 331 means use the characteristics specified in the row of input file SUEWS_NonVeg.txt which has 331 in column 1 (Code).

33 L Code_Bldgs 332 Code for Bldgs surface characteristics

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, which contains the attributes describing buildings in this grid for this year. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt.

34 L Code_EveTr 331 Code for EveTr surface characteristics

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt, which contains the attributes describing evergreen trees and shrubs in this grid for this year. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt.

35 L Code_DecTr 332 Code for DecTr surface characteristics

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt, which contains the attributes describing deciduous trees and shrubs in this grid for this year. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt.

36 L Code_Grass 333 Code for Grass surface characteristics

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt, which contains the attributes describing grass surfaces in this grid for this year. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt.

37 L Code_Bsoil 333 Code for BSoil surface characteristics

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, which contains the attributes describing bare soil in this grid for this year. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt.

38 L Code_Water 331 Code for Water surface characteristics

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Water.txt, which contains the attributes describing open water in this grid for this year. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Water.txt.

39 MD LUMPS_DrRate 0.25 Drainage rate of bucket for LUMPS [mm h-1]

Used for LUMPS surface wetness control. Default recommended value of 0.25 mm h-1 from Offerle (2002), Loridan et al. (2011).

40 MD LUMPS_Cover 1 Limit when surface totally covered with water [mm]

Used for LUMPS surface wetness control. Default recommended value of 1 mm from Offerle (2002), Loridan et al. (2011).

41 MD LUMPS_MaxRes 10 Maximum water bucket reservoir [mm]

Used for LUMPS surface wetness control. Default recommended value of 10 mm from Offerle (2002), Loridan et al. (2011).

42 MD NARP_Trans 1 Atmospheric transmissivity for NARP [-]

Value must in the range 0-1. Default recommended value of 1.

43 L CondCode 33 Code for surface conductance parameters

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Conductance.txt, which contains the parameters for the Jarvis (1976) parameterisation of surface conductance. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Conductance.txt. e.g. 33 means use the characteristics specified in the row of input file SUEWS_Conductance.txt which has 33 in column 1 (Code).

44 L SnowCode 33 Code for snow surface characteristics

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Snow.txt, which contains the attributes describing snow surfaces in this grid for this year. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Snow.txt.

45 L SnowClearingProfWD 331 Code for snow clearing profile (weekdays)

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. e.g. 331 means use the characteristics specified in the row of input file SUEWS_Profiles.txt which has 331 in column 1 (Code).

46 L SnowClearingProfWE 332 Code for snow clearing profile (weekends)

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. e.g. 332 means use the characteristics specified in the row of input file SUEWS_Profiles.txt which has 332 in column 1 (Code). Providing the same code for SnowClearingProfWD and SnowClearingProfWE would link to the same row in SUEWS_Profiles.txt, i.e. the same profile would be used for weekdays and weekends.

47 L AnthropogenicCode 33 Code for modelling anthropogenic heat flux

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt, which contains the model coefficients for estimation of the anthropogenic heat flux (used if AnthropHeatChoice = 2, 3 in 4.1 RunControl.nml). Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt.

48 L EnergyUseProfWD 333 Code for energy use profile (weekdays)

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.

49 L EnergyUseProfWE 334 Code for energy use profile (weekends)

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.

50 L IrrigationCode 33 Code for modelling irrigation

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Irrigation.txt, which contains the model coefficients for estimation of the water use (used if WU_Choice = 0 in RunControl). Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Irrigation.txt.

51 L WaterUseProfManuWD 335 Code for water use profile (manual irrigation, weekdays)

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.

52 L WaterUseProfManuWE 336 Code for water use profile (manual irrigation, weekends)

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.

53 L WaterUseProfAutoWD 337 Code for water use profile (automatic irrigation, weekdays)

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.

54 L WaterUseProfAutoWE 338 Code for water use profile (automatic irrigation, weekends)

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.

55 MD FlowChange 0 Difference in input and output flows for water surface [mm h-1]

Used to indicate river or stream flow through the grid.

    • Currently not fully tested**
56 MD,MU RunoffToWater 0.1 Fraction of above-ground runoff flowing to water surface during flooding [-]

Value must be in the range 0-1. Fraction of above-ground runoff that can flow to the water surface in the case of flooding.

57 MD,MU PipeCapacity 100 Storage capacity of pipes [mm]

Runoff amounting to less than the value specified here is assumed to be removed by pipes.

58 MD,MU GridConnection1of8 2 Number of the grid where water can flow to

The next 8 pairs of columns specify the water flow between grids.The first column of each pair specifies the grid that the water flows to (from the current grid, column 1); the second column of each pair specifies the fraction of water that flow to that grid. The fraction (i.e. amount) of water transferred may be estimated based on elevation, the length of connecting surface between grids, presence of walls, etc.

Water cannot flow from the current grid to the same grid, so the grid number here must be different to the grid number in column 1. Water can flow to a maximum of 8 other grids. If there is no water flow between grids, or a single grid is run, set to 0. See section on Grid Connections

    • Not currently implemented**
59 MD,MU Fraction1of8 0.2 Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
60 MD,MU GridConnection2of8 0 Number of the grid where water can flow to
61 MD,MU Fraction2of8 0 Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
62 MD,MU GridConnection3of8 0 Number of the grid where water can flow to
63 MD,MU Fraction3of8 0 Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
64 MD,MU GridConnection4of8 0 Number of the grid where water can flow to
65 MD,MU Fraction4of8 0 Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
66 MD,MU GridConnection5of8 0 Number of the grid where water can flow to
67 MD,MU Fraction5of8 0 Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
68 MD,MU GridConnection6of8 0 Number of the grid where water can flow to
69 MD,MU Fraction6of8 0 Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
70 MD,MU GridConnection7of8 0 Number of the grid where water can flow to
71 MD,MU Fraction7of8 0 Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
72 MD,MU GridConnection8of8 0 Number of the grid where water can flow to
73 MD,MU Fraction8of8 0 Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
74 L WithinGridPavedCode 331 Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from Paved surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

75 L WithinGridBldgsCode 332 Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from Bldgs surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

76 L WithinGridEveTrCode 333 Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from EveTr surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

77 L WithinGridDecTrCode 334 Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from DecTr surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

78 L WithinGridGrassCode 335 Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from Grass surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

79 L WithinGridBSoilCode 336 Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from BSoil surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

80 L WithinGridWaterCode 337 Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from Water surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.

Day Light Saving (DLS)

The dates for DLS normally vary each year as they are often associated with a specific set of Sunday mornings at the beginning of summer and autumn. Note it is important to remember leap years.

If DLS does not occur give a start and end day immediately after it. Important: Make certain the dummy dates are correct for the hemisphere:

for northern hemisphere, use: 180 181
for southern hemisphere, use:  365 1
Example: Year start of daylight savings end of daylight savings
when running multiple years (in this case 2008 and 2009) 2008 170 240
2009 172 242
when daylight saving does not occur in Northern hemisphere 2008 180 181
when daylight saving occurs in Southern hemisphere 2004 275 93
when daylight saving does not occur in Southern hemisphere 2008 365 1

Grid Connections (water flow between grids)

Example grid connections showing water flow between grids. Arrows indicate the water flow in to and out of grid 234, but note that only only water flowing out of each grid is entered in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
Example values for the grid connections part of SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt for the grids

This section gives an example of water flow between grids, calculated based on the relative elevation of the grids and length of the connecting surface between adjacent grids. For the square grids in Figure 1a, water flow is assumed to be zero between diagonally adjacent grids, as the length of connecting surface linking the grids is very small. Model grids need not be square or the same size, as illustrated in (Figure 1b).

Table gives example values for the grid connections part of SiteSelect.txt for the grids in Figure 1b. For each row of SiteSelect.txt, only water flowing out of the current grid is entered (e.g. water flows from 234 to 236 and 237, with a larger proportion of water flowing to 237 because of the greater length of connecting surface between 234 and 237 than between 234 and 236. No water is assumed to flow between 234 and 233 or 235 because there is no elevation difference between these grids. Grids 234 and 238 are at the same elevation and only connect at a point, so no water flows between them. Water enters grid 234 from grids 230, 231 and 232 as these are more elevated.

SUEWS_NonVeg.txt

SUEWS_NonVeg.txt specifies the characteristics for the non-vegetated surface cover types (Paved, Bldgs, BSoil) by linking codes in column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt to the codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt (Code_Paved, Code_Bldgs, Code_BSoil). Each row should correspond to a particular surface type.

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code 331

332


333

Code linking to SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt for paved surfaces (Code_Paved), buildings (Code_Bldgs) and bare soil surfaces (Code_BSoil).

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MU AlbedoMin 0-1 Minumum (wintertime, not including snow) albedo of this surface [-]

Effective surface albedo (middle of the day value). View factors should be taken into account.

Not currently used – set the same as AlbedoMax. Typical Albedos


3 AlbedoMax 0-1 Maximum (wintertime, not including snow) albedo of this surface [-]

Effective surface albedo (middle of the day value). View factors should be taken into account.

Typical Albedos

4 MU Emissivity 0-1 Emissivity of this surface [-]

Effective surface emissivity. View factors should be taken into account

Typical Values

5 MD StorageMin Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]

Minimum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy). Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces). Typical Values

6 MD StorageMax Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]

Maximum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy) Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces) Typical Values

7 MD WetThreshold Threshold for a completely wet surface (i.e. a depth in mm), which determines whether evaporation occurs from a partially wet or completely wet surface.
0.6 !Paved
0.6 !Bldgs
8 MD StateLimit Upper limit to the surface state [mm]
    • Currently only used for the water suface**
9 MD DrainageEq 1, 2, 3 Drainage equation to use for this surface. Coefficients specified in the following two columns.

Options for drainage equations:

1 Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)
2 Halldin et al. (1979) (Rutter eqn corrected for c=0, see Calder & Wright (1986))
3 Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)
3 !Paved, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
3 !Bldgs, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
2 !BSoil, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
10 MD DrainageCoef1 Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to equation]
10 Paved, coefficient D0, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
10 Bldgs, coefficient D0, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
0.013 BSoil, Grimmond and Oke (1991) [mm h-1]
11 MD DrainageCoef2 Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to equation]
3 !Paved, coefficient b, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
3 !Bldgs, coefficient b, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
1.71 !BSoil, Grimmond and Oke (1991) [mm-1]
12 L SoilTypeCode Code for soil characteristics below this surface

Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Soil.txt, which contains the attributes describing sub-surface soil for this surface type. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Soil.txt.

13 O SnowLimPatch Maximum SWE [mm]

Limit of snow water equivalent when the surface is fully covered with snow.

190 !Paved Järvi et al. (2014)
190 !Bldgs Järvi et al. (2014)
190 !BSoil Järvi et al. (2014)

Not needed if SnowUse = 0 in 4.1 RunControl.nml.

14 O SnowLimRemove SWE when snow is removed from this surface [mm]

Limit of snow water equivalent when snow is removed from paved surfaces and buildings Currently not implemented for BSoil surface

40 Paved Järvi et al. (2014)
100 Bldgs, Järvi et al. (2014)

Not needed if SnowUse = 0 in 4.1 RunControl.nml.

15 L OHMCode_SummerWet Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in summer.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

16 L OHMCode_SummerDry Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in summer.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

17 L OHMCode_WinterWet Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in winter.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

18 L OHMCode_WinterDry Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in winter.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

SUEWS_Veg.txt

SUEWS_Veg.txt specifies the characteristics for the vegetated surface cover types (EveTr, DecTr, Grass) by linking codes in column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt to the codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt (Code_EveT, Code_DecTr, Code_Grass). Each row should correspond to a particular surface type.

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code 331

332


333

Code linking to SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt for evergreen trees and shrubs (Code_EveTr), deciduous trees and shrubs (Code_DecTr) and grass surfaces (Code_Grass).

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MU AlbedoMin 0-1 Minimum albedo of this surface [-]

Effective surface albedo (leaf-off, middle of the day value). View factors should be taken into account.

0.10 EveTr
0.12 DecTr
0.18 Grass
3 MU AlbedoMax 0-1 Maxium albedo of this surface [-]

Effective surface albedo (full leaf-on, middle of the day value). View factors should be taken into account.

0.10 !EveTr, Helsinki, Järvi et al. (2014)
0.16 DecTr, Helsinki, Järvi et al. (2014)
0.19 Grass, Helsinki, Järvi et al. (2014)
0.10 EveTr, Oke (1987)
0.18 DecTr, Oke (1987)
0.21 Grass, Oke (1987)
4 MU Emissivity 0-1 Emissivity of this surface [-]
  • Effective surface emissivity.
  • View factors should be taken into account ||0.98 ||EveTr, Oke (1987)
0.98 DecTr, Oke (1987)
0.93 Grass, Oke (1987)
5 MD StorageMin Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]
  • Minimum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy).
  • Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces).||1.3 ||EveTr, Breuer et al. (2003)
0.3 DecTr, Breuer et al. (2003)
1.9 Grass, Breuer et al. (2003)
6 MD StorageMax Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]
  • Maximum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy)
  • Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces) ||1.3 ||!EveTr, Breuer et al. (2003)
0.8 DecTr, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
1.9 Grass, Breuer et al. (2003)
7 MD WetThreshold Threshold for a completely wet surface (i.e. a depth in mm), which determines whether evaporation occurs from a partially wet or completely wet surface.
1.8 EveTr
1.0 DecTr
2.0 Grass
8 MD StateLimit Upper limit to the surface state [mm]
    • Currently only used for the water suface**
9 MD DrainageEq 1, 2, 3 Drainage equation to use for this surface. Coefficients specified in the following two columns.

Options for drainage equations:

1 Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)
2 Halldin et al. (1979) (Rutter eqn corrected for c=0, see Calder & Wright (1986))
3 Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)
2 !EveTr, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
2 !DecTr, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
2 !Grass (unirrigated), Grimmond and Oke (1991)
3 !Grass (irrigated), Grimmond and Oke (1991)
10 MD DrainageCoef1 Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to equation]
0.013 !EveTr, Grimmond and Oke (1991) [mm h-1]
0.013 !DecTr, Grimmond and Oke (1991) [mm h-1]
0.013 !Grass (unirrigated), Grimmond and Oke (1991) [mm h-1]
10 !Grass (irrigated), coefficient D0, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
11 MD DrainageCoef2 Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to equation]
1.71 !EveTrl, Grimmond and Oke (1991) [mm-1]
1.71 !DecTr, Grimmond and Oke (1991) [mm-1]
1.71 !Grass (unirrigated), Grimmond and Oke (1991) [mm-1]
3 !Grass (irrigated), coefficient D0, Grimmond and Oke (1991)
12 L SoilTypeCode Code for soil characteristics below this surface
  • Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Soil.txt, which contains the attributes describing sub-surface soil for this surface type.
  • Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Soil.txt.
13 O SnowLimPatch Maximum SWE [mm]
  • Limit of snow water equivalent when the surface surface is fully covered with snow.
  • Not needed if SnowUse = 0 in 4.1 RunControl.nml.
190 !EveTr, Järvi et al. (2014)
190 !DecTr, Järvi et al. (2014)
190 !Grass, Järvi et al. (2014)
14 MU BaseT Base temperature for initiating growing degree days for leaf growth [°C]

See section 2.2 Järvi et al. (2011); Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014).

5 !EveTr, Järvi et al. (2011)
5 !DecTr, Järvi et al. (2011)
5 !Grass, Järvi et al. (2011)
15 MU BaseTe Base temperature for initating senescence degree days for leaf off [°C]

See section 2.2 Järvi et al. (2011); Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014). 10 ||!EveTr, Järvi et al. (2011) 10 ||!DecTr, Järvi et al. (2011) 10 ||!Grass, Järvi et al. (2011)

16 MU GDDFull Growing degree days needed for full capacity of the leaf area index [°C]

This should be checked carefully for your study area. Modelled LAI from the DailyState.txt output file can be checked relative to known behaviour in the study area. See section 2.2 Järvi et al. (2011); Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014) for more details. 300 ||!EveTr, Järvi et al. (2011) 300 ||!DecTr, Järvi et al. (2011) 300 ||!Grass, Järvi et al. (2011)

17 MU SDDFull Senescencedegree days needed to initiate leaf off [°C]

This should be checked carefully for your study area. Modelled LAI from the DailyState.txt output file can be checked relative to known behaviour in the study area. See section 2.2 Järvi et al. (2011); Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014) for more details. -450 ||!EveTr, Järvi et al. (2011) -450 ||!DecTr, Järvi et al. (2011) -450 ||!Grass, Järvi et al. (2011)

18 MD LAIMin Minimum leaf area index [m2 m-2]

i.e leaf-off wintertime value 4 ||!EveTr, Järvi et al. (2011) 1 ||!DecTr, Järvi et al. (2011) 1.6 ||!Grass, refs within Grimmond and Oke (1991)

19 MD LAIMax Maximum leaf area index [m2 m-2]

i.e. full leaf-on summertime value 5.1 ||!EveTr, Breuer et al. (2003) 5.5 ||!DecTr, Breuer et al. (2003) 5.9 ||!Grass, Breuer et al. (2003)

20 MD MaxConductance Maximum conductance for each surface [mm s-1]

Used to calculate the surface conductance using the Jarvis (1976) model. See Eq 15 Järvi et al. (2011). 7.4 ||!EveTr, Järvi et al. (2011) 11.7 ||!DecTr, Järvi et al. (2011) 33.1 ||!Grass (unirrigated), Järvi et al. (2011) 40.0 ||!Grass (irrigated), Järvi et al. (2011)

21 MD LAIEq 0, 1 LAI equation to use for this surface. Coeffiecients specified in the following four columns.

Options for LAI equations: 0 - Järvi et al. (2011) 1 - Järvi et al. (2014) N.B. North and South hemispheres treated slightly differently.

22 MD LeafGrowthPower1 Coefficient (power) for leaf growth [-]

See Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014) for more details. 0.03 ||!Järvi et al. (2011), use if LAIEq = 0 0.04 ||!Järvi et al. (2014), use if LAIEq = 1

23 MD LeafGrowthPower2 Constant in the leaf growth equation [°C-1]

0.0005 ||!Järvi et al. (2011), use if LAIEq = 0 0.001 ||!Järvi et al. (2014), use if LAIEq = 1

24 MD LeafOffPower1 Coefficient (power) for leaf off [-]

0.03 ||!Järvi et al. (2011), use if LAIEq = 0 -1.5 ||!Järvi et al. (2014), use if LAIEq = 1

25 MD LeafOffPower2 Constant in the leaf off equation [°C-1]

0.0005 ||!Järvi et al. (2011), use if LAIEq = 0 0.0015 ||!Järvi et al. (2014), use if LAIEq = 1

26 L OHMCode_SummerWet Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in summer.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

27 L OHMCode_SummerDry Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in summer.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

28 L OHMCode_WinterWet Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in winter.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

29 L OHMCode_WinterDry Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in winter.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

SUEWS_Water.txt

SUEWS_Water.txt specifies the characteristics for the water surface cover type by linking codes in column 1 of SUEWS_Water.txt to the codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt (Code_Water).

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code 331 Code linking to SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt for water surfaces (Code_Water).

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MU AlbedoMin 0-1 Minimum albedo of this surface [-]

View factors should be taken into account. Not currently used.

0.1 Water, Oke (1987)
3 MU AlbedoMax 0-1 Albedo of this surface [-]

View factors should be taken into account.

0.1 Water, Oke (1987)
4 MU Emissivity 0-1 Emissivity of this surface [-]

Effective surface emissivity. View factors should be taken into account

0.95 Water, Oke (1987)
5 MD StorageMin Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]

Minimum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy). Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces).

0.5 Water
6 MD StorageMax Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]

Maximum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy) Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces)

0.5 Water
7 MD WetThreshold Threshold for a completely wet surface (i.e. a depth in mm), which determines whether evaporation occurs from a partially wet or completely wet surface.
0.5 Water
8 MU StateLimit Upper limit to the surface state [mm]

State cannot exceed this value. Set to a large value (e.g. 20000 mm = 20 m) if the water body is substantial (lake, river, etc) or a small value (e.g. 10 mm) if water bodies are very shallow (e.g. fountains).

20000 Water
9 MD DrainageEq -999 Drainage equation to use for this surface. Coefficients specified in the following two columns.
  • Not currently used for water suface
10 MD DrainageCoef1 -999 Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to equation]
  • Not currently used for water suface
11 MD DrainageCoef2 -999 Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to equation]
  • Not currently used for water suface
12 L OHMCode_SummerWet Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in summer.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

13 L OHMCode_SummerDry Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in summer.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

14 L OHMCode_WinterWet Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in winter.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

15 L OHMCode_WinterDry Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in winter.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

SUEWS_Snow.txt

SUEWS_Snow.txt specifies the characteristics for snow surfaces when SnowUse=1 in 4.1 RunControl.nml. If the snow part of the model is not run, fill this table with ‘-999’ except for the first (Code) column and set SnowUse=0 in 4.1 RunControl.nml. For a detailed description of the variables, see Järvi et al. (2014). In the current version SnowUse should be set to 0.

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code 331 Code linking to SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt for snow surfaces (SnowCode).

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MU RadMeltFactor 0.0016 Hourly radiation melt factor of snow [mm W-1 h-1]
3 MU TempMeltFactor 0.12 Hourly temperature melt factor of snow [mm °C -1 h-1]
4 MU AlbedoMin 0-1 Minimum snow albedo [-]
0.18 Järvi et al. (2014)
5 MU AlbedoMax 0-1 Maximum snow albedo (fresh snow) [-]
0.85 Järvi et al. (2014)
6 MU Emissivity 0-1 Emissivity of this surface [-]

Effective surface emissivity. View factors should be taken into account

0.99 !Snow, Järvi et al. (2014)
7 MD tau_a Time constant for snow albedo aging in cold snow [-]
0.018 !Järvi et al. (2014)
8 MD tau_f Time constant for snow albedo aging in melting snow [-]
0.11 !Järvi et al. (2014)
9 MD PrecipiLimAlb 2 Limit for hourly precipitation when the ground is fully covered with snow. Then snow albedo is reset to AlbedoMax [mm]
10 MD snowDensMin 100 Fresh snow density [kg m-3]
11 MD snowDensMax 400 Maximum snow density [kg m-3]
12 MD tau_r Time constant for snow density ageing [-]
0.043 !Järvi et al. (2014)
13 MD CRWMin Minimum water holding capacity of snow [mm]
0.05 !Järvi et al. (2014)
14 MD CRWMax Maximum water holding capacity of snow [mm]
0.20 !Järvi et al. (2014)
15 MD PrecipLimSnow 2.2 Temperature limit when precipitation falls as snow [°C] !Auer 1974
16 L OHMCode_SummerWet Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in summer.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

17 L OHMCode_SummerDry Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in summer.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

18 L OHMCode_WinterWet Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in winter.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

19 L OHMCode_WinterDry Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in winter.

Links to SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt. Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.

SUEWS_Soil.txt

SUEWS_Soil.txt specifies the characteristics of the sub-surface soil below each of the non-water surface types (Paved, Bldgs, EveTr, DecTr, Grass, BSoil). The model does not have a soi store below the water surfaces. Note that these sub-surface soil stores are different to the bare soil/unmamnaged surface cover type. Each of the non-water surface types need to link to soil characteristics specified here. If the soil characteristics are assumed to be the same for all surface types, use a single code value to link the characteristics here with the SoilTypeCode columns in SUEWS_NonVeg.txt and SUEWS_Veg.txt.

Soil moisture can either be provided using observational data in the met forcing file (smd_choice = 1 or 2 in 4.1 RunControl.nml) and providing some metadata information here (OBS_ columns), or modelled by SUEWS (smd_choice = 0 in 4.1 RunControl.nml).

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code 331 Code linking to the SoilTypeCode column in SUEWS_NonVeg.txt (for Paved, Bldgs and BSoil surfaces) and SUEWS_Veg.txt (for EveTr, DecTr and Grass surfaces).

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MD SoilDepth 350 Depth of sub-surface soil store [mm]

i.e. the depth of soil beneath the surface

3 MD SoilStoreCap 150 Capacity of sub-surface soil store [mm]

i.e. how much water can be stored in the sub-surface soil when at maximum capacity. (SoilStoreCap must not be greater than SoilDepth.)

4 MD SatHydraulicCond 0.0005 Hydraulic conductivity for saturated soil [mm s-1]
5 MD SoilDensity 1.16 Soil density [kg m-3]
6 O InfiltrationRate -999 Infiltration rate [mm h-1]
  • Not currently used
7 O OBS_SMDepth Depth of soil moisture measurements [mm]

Use only if soil moisture is observed and provided in the met forcing file and smd_choice = 1 or 2.

  • Use of observed soil moisture not currently tested**
8 O OBS_SMCap Maxiumum observed soil moisture [m3 m-3 or kg kg-1]

Use only if soil moisture is observed and provided in the met forcing file and smd_choice = 1 or 2.

  • Use of observed soil moisture not currently tested**
9 O OBS_SoilNotRocks Fraction of soil without rocks [-]

Use only if soil moisture is observed and provided in the met forcing file and smd_choice = 1 or 2.

  • Use of observed soil moisture not currently tested**

SUEWS_Conductance.txt

SUEWS_Conductance.txt contains the parameters needed for the Jarvis (1976) surface conductance model used in the modelling of evaporation in SUEWS. These values should not be changed independently of each other. The suggested values below have been derived using datasts for Los Angeles and Vancouver (see Järvi et al. (2011)) and should be used with gsChoice=1 in RunControl.nml. An alternative formulation (gsChoice=2) uses slightly different functional forms and different coefficients.

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code Code linking to the CondCode column in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MD G1 16.4764 Related to maximum surface conductance [mm s-1]
3 MD G2 566.0923 Related to Kdown dependence [W m-2]
4 MD G3 0.2163 Related to VPD dependence [Units depend on gsChoice in #RunControl.nml ]
5 MD G4 3.3649 Related to VPD dependence [Units depend on gsChoice in #RunControl.nml ]
6 MD G5 11.0764 Related to temperature dependence [°C]
7 MD G6 0.0176 Related to soil moisture dependence [mm-1]
8 MD TH 40 Upper air temperature limit [°C]
9 MD TL 0 Lower air temperature limit [°C]
10 MD S1 0.45 Related to soil moisture dependence [-]
    • These will change in the future to ensure consistency with soil behaviour**
11 MD S2 15 Related to soil moisture dependence [mm]
    • These will change in the future to ensure consistency with soil behaviour**
12 MD Kmax 1200 Maximum incoming shortwave radiation [W m-2]

SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt

SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeatFlux.txt provides the parameters needed to model the anthropogenic heat flux using either the method of Järvi et al. (2011) based on heating and cooling degree days (AnthropHeatChoice = 2 in 4.1 RunControl.nml) or the method of Loridan et al. (2011) based on air temperature (AnthropHeatChoice = 1 in 4.1 RunControl.nml). The sub-daily variation in anthropogenic heat flux is modelled according to the daily cycles specified in SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Alternatively, if available, the anthropogenic heat flux can be provided in the met forcing file (and set AnthropHeatChoice = 0 in 4.1 RunControl.nml), in which case all columns here except Code and BaseTHDD should be set to ’-999’.

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code 331 Code linking to the AnthropogenicCode column in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MU BaseTHDD Base temperature for heating degree days [°C]
18.2 !Sailor and Vasireddy (2006)
3 MU, O QF_A_Weekday Base value for QF on weekdays [W m-2 (Cap ha-1)-1]

Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 2

0.3081 !Järvi et al. (2011)
0.100 !Järvi et al. (2014)
4 MU, O QF_B_Weekday Parameter related to cooling degree days on weekdays [W m-2 K-1 (Cap ha-1)-1]

Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 2

0.0099 !Järvi et al. (2011)
0.0099 !Järvi et al. (2014)
5 MU, O QF_C_Weekday Parameter related to heating degree days on weekdays [W m-2 K-1 (Cap ha-1)-1]

Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 2

0.0102 !Järvi et al. (2011)
0.0102 !Järvi et al. (2014)
6 MU, O QF_A_Weekend Base value for QF on weekends [W m-2 (Cap ha-1)-1]

Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 2

0.3081 !Järvi et al. (2011)
0.100 !Järvi et al. (2014)
7 MU, O QF_B_Weekend 0-1 Parameter related to cooling degree days on weekends [W m-2 K-1 (Cap ha-1)-1]

Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 2

0.0099 !Järvi et al. (2011)
0.0099 !Järvi et al. (2014)
8 MU, O QF_C_Weekend Parameter related to heating degree days on weekends [W m-2 K-1 (Cap ha-1)-1]

Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 2

0.0102 !Järvi et al. (2011)
0.0102 !Järvi et al. (2014)
9 MU, O AHMin Minimum QF [W m-2]

Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 1

15 !Loridan et al. (2011)
10 MU, O AHSlope Slope of QF versus air temperatur e [W m-2 K-1]

Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 1

2.7 !Loridan et al. (2011)
11 MU, O TCritic Critical temperature [°C]

Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 1

7 !Loridan et al. (2011)

SUEWS_Irrigation.txt

SUEWS includes a simple model for external water use if observed data are not available. The model calculates daily water use from the mean daily air temperature, number of days since rain and fraction of irrigated area using automatic/manual irrigation. The sub-daily pattern of water use is modelled according to the daily cycles specified in SUEWS_Profiles.txt.

Alternatively, if available, the external water use can be provided in the met forcing file (and set WU_choice = 1 in 4.1 RunControl.nml), in which case all columns here except Code should be set to ’-999’.

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code Code linking to SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt for irrigation modelling (IrrigationCode).

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MU Ie_start 1-366 Day when irrigation starts [DOY]
3 MU Ie_end 1-366 Day when irrigation ends [DOY]
4 MU InternalWaterUse 0 Internal water use [mm h-1]
5 MU Faut 0-1 Fraction of irrigated area that is irrigated using automated systems (e.g. sprinklers).
6 MD Ie_a1 -84.54 Coefficient for automatic irrigation model [mm d-1]
7 MD Ie_a2 9.96 Coefficient for automatic irrigation model [mm d-1 °C-1]
8 MD Ie_a3 3.67 Coefficient for automatic irrigation model [mm d-2]
9 MD Ie_m1 -25.36 Coefficient for manual irrigation model [mm d-1]
10 MD Ie_m2 3.00 Coefficient for manual irrigation model [mm d-1 °C-1]
11 MD Ie_m3 1.10 Coefficient for manual irrigation model [mm d-2
12 MU DayWat(1) 0 or 1 Irrigation allowed on Sundays [1], if not [0]
13 MU DayWat(2) 0 or 1 Irrigation allowed on Mondays [1], if not [0]
14 MU DayWat(3) 0 or 1 Irrigation allowed on Tuesdays [1], if not [0]
15 MU DayWat(4) 0 or 1 Irrigation allowed on Wednesdays [1], if not [0]
16 MU DayWat(5) 0 or 1 Irrigation allowed on Thursdays [1], if not [0]
17 MU DayWat(6) 0 or 1 Irrigation allowed on Fridays [1], if not [0]
18 MU DayWat(7) 0 or 1 Irrigation allowed on Saturdays [1], if not [0]
19 MU DayWatPer(1) 0-1 Fraction of properties using irrigation on Sundays [0-1]
20 MU DayWatPer(2) 0-1 Fraction of properties using irrigation on Mondays [0-1]
21 MU DayWatPer(3) 0-1 Fraction of properties using irrigation on Tuesdays [0-1]
22 MU DayWatPer(4) 0-1 Fraction of properties using irrigation on Wednesdays [0-1]
23 MU DayWatPer(5) 0-1 Fraction of properties using irrigation on Thursdays [0-1]
24 MU DayWatPer(6) 0-1 Fraction of properties using irrigation on Fridays [0-1]
25 MU DayWatPer(7) 0-1 Fraction of properties using irrigation on Saturdays [0-1]

SUEWS_Profiles.txt

SUEWS_Profiles.txt specifies the daily cycle of variables related to human behaviour (energy use, water use and snow clearning). Different profiles can be specified for weekdays and weekends. The profiles are provided at hourly resolution here, then model will then interpolate the hourly energy and water use profiles to the resolution of the model timestep and normalize the values provided. Thus it does not matter whether columns 2-25 add up to, say 1, 24, or another number, because the model will handle this. Currently, the snow clearing profiles are not interpolated as these are effectively a switch (0 or 1).

If the anthropogenic heat flux and water use are specified in the met forcing file, the energy and water use profiles are not used.

Profiles are specified for the following - Anthropogenic heat flux (weekday and weekend) - Water use (weekday and weekend; manual and automatic irrigation) - Snow removal (weekday and weekend)

No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code Code linking to the following columns in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt:
  • EnergyUseProfWD : Anthropogenic heat flux, weekdays
  • EnergyUseProfWE : Anthropogenic heat flux, weekends
  • WaterUseProfManuWD : Manual irrigaton, weekdays
  • WaterUseProfManuWE : Manual irrigaton, weekends
  • WaterUseProfAutoWD : Automatic irrigaton, weekdays
  • WaterUseProfAutoWE: Automatic irrigaton, weekends
  • SnowClearingProfWD : Snow clearing, weekdays
  • SnowClearingProfWE: Snow clearing, weekends
  • Value of integer is arbitrary but must match codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
2-25 MU 0-23 Multiplier for each hour of the day [-] for energy and water use.

For SnowClearing, set those hours to 1 when snow removal from paved and roof surface is allowed (0 otherwise) if the snow removal limits set in the SUEWS_NonVeg.txt (SnowLimRemove column) are exceeded.

SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt

SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt specifies the movement of water between surfaces within a grid/area. It allows impervious connectivity to be taken into account.

Each row corresponds to a surface type (linked by the Code in column 1 to the SiteSelect.txt columns: WithinGridPavedCode, WithinGridBuiltCode, …, WithinGridBSoilCode, WithinGridWaterCode). Each column then contains the fraction of water flowing from the surface type to each of the other surface types or to runoff or the sub-surface soil store.

Note: - The sum of each row (excluding the Code) must equal 1. - Water cannot flow from one surface to that same surface, so the diagonal elements should be zero. - **The row corresponding to the water surface should be zero, as there is currently no flow permitted from the water surface to other surfaces by the model. - **Currently water cannot go to runoff and soil store (i.e. it must go to one or the other – runoff for impervious surfaces; soilstore for pervious surfaces).

In the table below, for example, - all flow from paved surfaces goes to runoff; - 90% of flow from buildings goes to runoff, with small amounts going to other surfaces (mostly paved surfaces as buildings are often surrounded by paved areas) - all flow from vegetated areas goes into the sub-surface soil store - the row corresponding to water contains zeros (**as it is currently not used**)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Code ToPaved ToBuilt ToEveTr ToDecTr ToGrass ToBSoil ToWater ToRunoff ToSoilStore
10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ! Paved
20 0.06 0 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0 0.9 0 ! Bldgs
30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ! EveTr
40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ! DecTr
50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ! Grass
60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ! BSoil
70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! Water

Storage Heat Flux Related

Depending on the choice made

option QS_choice files needed
OHM 1 SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt
ESTM 4 SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt

ESTMinput.nml


SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data.txt

ESTM 14 Used in EB calculations
AnOHM
Observations 2 Add data to Meteorological file ***link***

OHM

OHM, the Objective Hysteresis Model (Grimmond et al. 1991) calculates the storage heat flux as a function of net allwave radiation and surface characteristics.


SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt
  • For each surface, OHM requires three model coefficients (a1, a2, a3). The three shouls be selected as a set.
  • A variety of values has been derived for different materials and can be found in the literature.
  • The SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt file provides these coefficients for each surface type.
  • Coefficients can be changed depending on:
  1. surface wetness state (wet/dry) based on the calculated surface wetness state in the model.
  2. season (summer/winter) based on a 5-day running average of mean air temperature. If greater than 5 °C then the summer coefficients are used.
  • To use the same coefficients irrespective of wet/dry and summer/winter conditions, use the same code for all four OHM linking columns (OHMCode_SummerWet, OHMCode_SummerDry, OHMCode_WinterWet and OHMCode_WinterDry).
[Values]
No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code 331 Code linking to the OHMCode_SummerWet, OHMCode_SummerDry, OHMCode_WinterWet and OHMCode_WinterDry columns in SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, SUEWS_Veg,txt, SUEWS_Water.txt and SUEWS_Snow.txt files.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MU a1 Coefficient for Q* term [-]
3 MU a2 Coefficient for dQ*/dt term [h]
4 MU a3 Constant term [W m-2]

ESTM

The Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM) (Offerle et al., 2005) calculates the net storage heat flux from surface temperatures. In the method the three-dimensional urban volume is reduced to four 1-d elements (i.e. building roofs, walls, and internal mass and ground (road, vegetation, etc)). The storage heat flux is calculated from the heat conduction through the different elements. For the inside surfaces of the roof and walls, and both surfaces for the internal mass (ceilings/floors, internal walls), the surface temperature of the element is determined by setting the conductive heat transfer out of (in to) the surface equal to the radiative and convective heat losses (gains). Each element (roof, wall, internal element and ground) can have maximum five layers and each layer has three parameters tied to it: thickness (x), thermal conductivity (k), volumetric heat capacity (rhoCp).

SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt

If less than five layers are used, the parameters for unused layers should be set to -999.


No. USE Column name Example Description
1 L Code 331 Code linking to the OHMCode_SummerWet, OHMCode_SummerDry, OHMCode_WinterWet and OHMCode_WinterDry columns in SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, SUEWS_Veg,txt, SUEWS_Water.txt and SUEWS_Snow.txt files.

Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.

2 MU thick1 0.2 Thickness of the first layer [m]
3 MU k1 0.5 Thermal conductivity of the first layer [W m-1 K-1]
4 MU rhoCp1 840000 Volumetric heat capacity of the first layer [J m-3 K-1]
5 O thick2 - Thickness of the second layer [m] (if no second layer, set to -999.)
6 O k2 - Thermal conductivity of the second layer [W m-1 K-1]
7 O rhoCp2 - Volumetric heat capacity of the second layer [J m-3 K-1]
8 O thick3 - Thickness of the third layer [m] (if no third layer, set to -999.)
9 O k3 - Thermal conductivity of the third layer[W m-1 K-1]
10 O rhoCp3 - Volumetric heat capacity of the third layer[J m-3 K-1]
11 O thick4 - Thickness of the fourth layer [m] (if no fourth layer, set to -999.)
12 O k4 - Thermal conductivity of the fourth layer[W m-1 K-1]
13 O rhoCp4 - Volumetric heat capacity of the fourth layer [J m-3 K-1]
14 O thick5 - Thickness of the fifth layer [m] (if no fifth layer, set to -999.)
15 O k5 - Thermal conductivity of the fifth layer[W m-1 K-1]
16 O rhoCp5 - Volumetric heat capacity of the fifth layer [J m-3 K-1]
17 MU thick1 - Thickness of the first layer [m]
18 MU k1 - Thermal conductivity of the first layer[W m-1 K-1]
19 MU rhoCp1 - Volumetric heat capacity of the first layer[J m-3 K-1]
20 O thick2 - Thickness of the second layer [m] (if no second layer, set to -999.)
21 O k2 - Thermal conductivity of the second layer[W m-1 K-1]
22 O rhoCp2 - Volumetric heat capacity of the second layer [J m-3 K-1]
23 O thick3 - Thickness of the third layer [m] (if no third layer, set to -999.)
24 O k3 - Thermal conductivity of the third layer[W m-1 K-1]
25 O rhoCp3 - Volumetric heat capacity of the third layer[J m-3 K-1]
26 O thick4 - Thickness of the fourth layer [m] (if no fourth layer, set to -999.)
27 O k4 - Thermal conductivity of the fourth layer[W m-1 K-1]
28 O rhoCp4 - Volumetric heat capacity of the fourth layer [J m-3 K-1]
29 O thick5 - Thickness of the fifth layer [m] (if no fifth layer, set to -999.)
30 O k5 - Thermal conductivity of the fifth layer[W m-1 K-1]
31 O rhoCp5 - Volumetric heat capacity of the fifth layer [J m-3 K-1]
32 MU thick1 - Thickness of the first layer [m]
33 MU k1 - Thermal conductivity of the first layer[W m-1 K-1]
34 MU rhoCp1 - Volumetric heat capacity of the first layer[J m-3 K-1]
35 O thick2 - Thickness of the second layer [m] (if no second layer, set to -999.)
36 O k2 - Thermal conductivity of the second layer[W m-1 K-1]
37 O rhoCp2 - Volumetric heat capacity of the second layer [J m-3 K-1]
38 O thick3 - Thickness of the third layer [m] (if no third layer, set to -999.)
39 O k3 - Thermal conductivity of the third layer[W m-1 K-1]
40 O rhoCp3 - Volumetric heat capacity of the third layer[J m-3 K-1]
41 O thick4 - Thickness of the fourth layer [m] (if no fourth layer, set to -999.)
42 O k4 - Thermal conductivity of the fourth layer[W m-1 K-1]
43 O rhoCp4 - Volumetric heat capacity of the fourth layer [J m-3 K-1]
44 O thick5 - Thickness of the fifth layer [m] (if no fifth layer, set to -999.)
45 O k5 - Thermal conductivity of the fifth layer[W m-1 K-1]
46 O rhoCp5 - Volumetric heat capacity of the fifth layer [J m-3 K-1]
47 MU nroom - Number of rooms per floor (used for building)
48 MU albbld - Albedo of all internal elements (used for building)
49 MU emisbld - Emissivity of all internal elements (used for building)
50 O CH_iwall W m-2 K-1 Bulk transfer coefficient of internal wall (used for building and if IbldCHmod == 0 in ESTMinput.nml (see 4.9)
51 O CH_iroof W m-2 K-1 Bulk transfer coefficient of internal roof (used for building and if IbldCHmod == 0 in ESTMinput.nml (see 4.9)
52 O CH_ibld W m-2 K-1 Bulk transfer coefficient of internal buildling elements (used for building and if IbldCHmod == 0 in ESTMinput.nml (see 4.9). Ex. 0.0015
53 O fwall - Ratio of wall area per unit plane area
ESTM_Input.nml

If ESTM is used (QSchoice=4 or 14), ESTMinput.nml and SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data.txt should be prepared.

  • ESTMinput.nml contains the model settings and default values
  • SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data.txt has input surface temperature for roof, wall, ground and internal elements.

Description of choices in ESTMinput.nml file. The file contents can be in any order.

Name Explanation/Details/ Description Value Comments
TsurfChoice Souce of surface temperature data used. 0 Tsurf in SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data.txt used for all surface elements.
1 *Tground, Troof and Twall in SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data.txt used.
  • Input surface temperature are different for ground, roof and wall.
2 Tground, Troof, Twall_n, Twall_e, Twall_s and Twall_w in SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data.txt is used.
  • Wall surface temperature is different for four directions.
evolveTibld Source of internal building temperature (Tibld) 0 Tiair in SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data.txt used.
1 Tibld - calculated considering the effect of anthropogenic heat from HVAC
2 Tibld - calculated without considering the influence of HVAC.
IbldCHmod Method to calculate internal convective heat exchange coefficients (CH) for internal building, wall and roof if evolveTibld =1 or 2. 0 CHs are read from SUEWS_ESTMcoefficients.txt.
1 CHs are calculated based on ASHRAE (2001)
2 CHs are calculated Awbi, H.B. (1998).
LBC_soil Soil temperature at lowest boundary condition. [˚C]
Theat_on Temperature at which heat control is turned on (used when evolveTibld =1). [˚C]
Theat_off Temperature at which heat control is turned off (used when evolveTibld=1). [˚C]
Theat_fix Ideal internal building temperature [˚C]
SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data.txt
No. Column name Description
1 dectime Decimal time [-]
2 Tiair Indoor air temperature [˚C]
3 Tsurf Bulk surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfCoice = 0)
4 Troof Roof surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 1 or 2)
5 Troad Ground surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 1 or 2)
6 Twall Wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 1)
7 Twall_n North-facing wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 2)
8 Twall_e East-facing wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 2)
9 Twall_s South-facing wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 2)
10 Twall_w West-facing wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 2)

Preparation of Meteorological data

The "wrapper" performs the downscaling of the data to the timestep of calculation.

  • 5 mins is the recommended time step.

RainParameters.nml

  • RainParameters.nml specifies empirical parameters for rainfall a disaggregation model when useRainModel=1 in #RunControl.nml.
  • If useRainModel =0 in #RunControl.nml, then this file does not need to be present.
  • When useRainModel=1, a time-varying rainfall sequence is generated at the model time resolution using a stochastic process.
  • When useRainModel=0, the rainfall accumulations are spread evenly across the model time steps. In both cases the accumulated rainfall occurring within each bin of the input rainfall data is conserved.

The input parameters for the downscaler are derived from fits to empirical data and should therefore be updated to represent the location studied. The values provided are for London, UK, based on three years of Radar data (2012-2014 inclusive).

Name Definition Units Value Site
rainIntensityLogMean Geometric mean of a log-normal distribution describing the rain intensity.
  • specified in log-space, i.e. log(geometric mean)
mm h-1 -1.103937465 London, UK (2012)
rainIntensityLogSd Log-standard deviation of a log-normal distribution describing the rain intensity
  • specified in log-space, i.e. log(geometric sd)
mm h-1 .365991286 London, UK (2012)
rainExtentScale Scale parameter of a Weibull distribution fitted to the CDF of temporal extent (start of first rain pulse to end of final rain pulse) of rainfall clusters.
  • cluster:a series of rain pulses separated by no more than X minutes, where X is 180 min in the example dataset.
minutes. 218.93547799 min London, UK (2012)
rainExtentShape Shape parameter of a Weibull distribution fitted to the CDF of temporal extent of rainfall clusters as defined above. 218.93547799 London, UK (2012)
rainExponent Exponent of a power law function fitted to the empirical power spectrum of the rainfall time series in the frequency interval (0.001, 0.1] min-1
rainWetProb Proportion of cluster time occupied by actual rainfall: i.e. total time spent raining ÷ total duration of rain clusters 0.5236637 London, UK (2012)

InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml

To start the model, information about the conditions at the start of the run is required. An Initial Condiitions file is needed for the first time period for each grid. After that, new InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml files will be written for the following years. It is recommended that you look at this output (located in the input directory) to check the status of various surfaces at the end or the run. This may help you get more realistic starting values if you are uncertain what they should be. Note this file will be created for each year for multiyear runs for each grid.

InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml

  • Variables can be in any order
Parameters Used for Unit Comments
DaysSinceRain Wateruse days Number of days since rainfall occurred.
  • important if starting in summer season that this is correct
  • if starting when external water use is not occurring it will be reset with the first rain so can just be set to 0.
Temp_C0 Water use, QF °C Daily mean temperature (°C) for the day before the run starts
Id_prev A Day Day of year before the run starts (i.e. previous day)
  • If start of year – use 0
GDD_1_0 LAI °C Growing degree days for leaf growth *If leaves are already full, then this should be the same as GDDFull in SUEWS_Veg.txt.
  • If winter, set to 0. Needs to be a positive number.
  • It is important that the vegetation characteristics are set correctly (i.e. is the starting period winter or summer).
GDD_2_0 LAI °C Growing degree days for senescence growth.
  • If the leaves are full but in early/mid summer then set to 0.
  • If late summer or autumn, this should be a negative value.
  • If leaves are off, then use the values of SDDFull in SUEWS_Veg.txt to guide your minimum value.
  • Needs to be a negative number or 0
  • It is important that the vegetation characteristics are set correctly (i.e. is the starting period winter or summer).
Above Ground State
PavedState Initial wetness state of paved surface (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
  • If unknown, set to zero as the model will update these states quickly.
BldgsState W mm Initial wetness state for buildings (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
  • If unknown, set to zero as the model will update these states quickly.
EveTrState W mm Initial wetness state of evergreen trees (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
  • If unknown, set to zero as the model will update these states quickly.
DecTrState W mm Initial wetness state of deciduous trees (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
  • If unknown, set to zero as the model will update these states quickly.
GrassState W mm Initial wetness state of grass (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
  • If unknown, set to zero as the model will update these states quickly.
BSoilState W mm Initial wetness state of bare soil surface (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
  • If unknown, set to zero as the model will update these states quickly.
WaterState W mm Initial state of water surface (must be set > 0, as 0 indicates dry surface).
  • For a large water body (e.g. river, sea, lake) set WaterState to a large value, e.g. 20000 mm; for small water bodies (e.g. ponds, fountains) set WaterState to smaller value, e.g. 1000 mm.
LAIinitialEveTr W m2 m-2 Initial LAI for evergreen trees
LAIinitialDecTr W m2 m-2 Initial LAI for deciduous trees
LAIinitialGrass W m2 m-2 Initial LAI for irrigated grass
Below Ground State Note! No soil store below water. Horizontal movements are permitted between the soil stores (see section 4.5)
SoilstorePavedState W mm Initial state of the soil water storage under paved surfaces
SoilstoreBldgsState W mm Initial state of the soil water storage under buildings
SoilstoreEveTrState W mm Initial state of the soil water storage under evergreen trees
SoilstoreDecTrState W mm Initial state of the soil water storage under deciduous trees
SoilstoreGrassState W mm Initial state of the soil water storage under grass
SoilstoreBSoilState W mm Initial state of the soil water storage under bare soil surfaces
Deciduous Vegetation state This should be consistent with albedo and DecTr storage capacities and time of year
albEveTr0 R - Albedo of evergreen trees on day 0 of run
albDec0 R - Albedo of deciduous trees on day 0 of run
albGrass0 R - Albedo of Grass on day 0 of run
decidCap0 A mm Deciduous storage capacity on day 0 of run
porosity0 E - Porosity of deciduous vegetation on day 0 of run
Snow Currently should be set to zero **LJ *****
SnowWaterPavedState mm Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on paved surfaces
SnowWaterBldgsState mm Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on buildings
SnowWaterEveTrState mm Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on evergreen trees
SnowWaterDecTrState mm Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on deciduous trees
SnowWaterGrassState mm Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on grass surfaces
SnowWaterBSoilState mm Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on bare soil surfaces
SnowWaterWaterState mm Initial amount of liquid water in the snow in water
SnowPackPaved mm Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on paved surfaces
SnowPackBldgs mm Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on buildings
SnowPackEveTr mm Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on evergreen trees
SnowPackDecTr mm Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on deciduous trees
SnowPackGrass mm Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on grass surfaces
SnowPackBSoil mm Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on bare soil surfaces
SnowPackWater mm Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on water
SnowFracPaved - Initial plan area fraction of snow on paved surfaces
SnowFracBldgs - Initial plan area fraction of snow on buildings
SnowFracEveTr - Initial plan area fraction of snow on evergreen trees
SnowFracDecTr - Initial plan area fraction of snow on deciduous trees
SnowFracGras - Initial plan area fraction of snow on grass surfaces
SnowFracBSoil - Initial plan area fraction of snow on bare soil surfaces
SnowFracWater - Initial plan area fraction of snow on water
SnowDensPaved kg m-3 Initial snow density on paved surfaces
SnowDensBldgs kg m-3 Initial snow density on buildings
SnowDensEveTr kg m-3 Initial snow density on evergreen trees
SnowDensDecTr kg m-3 Initial snow density on deciduous trees
SnowDensGrass kg m-3 Initial snow density on grass surfaces
SnowDensBSoil kg m-3 Initial snow density on bare soil surfaces
SnowDensWater kg m-3 Initial snow density on water

Meteorological input file

SUEWS is designed to run using commonly measured meteorological variables.

  • Required inputs must be continuous – i.e. gap fill any missing data.
  • Table below gives the required (R) and optional (O) additional input variables.
  • If an optional input variable is not available or will not be used by the model, enter ‘-999.0’ for this column.
  • One single meteorological file can be used for all grids (MultipleMetFiles=0) if appropriate for the study area, or
  • Separate met files can be used for each grid if data are available (MultipleMetFiles=1).
  • The meteorological input file should match the information given in #SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
  • If a partial year is used that specific year must be given in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
  • If multiple years are used, all years should be included in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt
  • If a whole year (e.g. 2011) is intended to be modelled using and hourly resolution dataset, the number of lines in the metdata-file should be 8760 and begin and end with:
iy 	id 	it 	imin
2011	1	1	0 …
…
2012	1	0	0 …

SSss_YYYY_data.txt

Main meteorological data file.

R required
O optional


No. USE Column name Description
1 R iy Year [YYYY]
2 R id Day of year [DOY]
3 R it Hour [H]
4 R imin Minute [M]
5 O qn Net all-wave radiation [W m-2]

Required if NetRadiationChoice = 1.

6 O qh Sensible heat flux [W m-2]
7 O qe Latent heat flux [W m-2]
8 O qs Storage heat flux [W m-2]
9 O qf Anthrpogenic heat flux [W m-2]
10 R U Wind speed [m s-1]
  • Height of the wind speed measurement (Z) is needed in RunControl.
11 R RH Relative Humidity [%]
12 R Tair Air temperature [°C]
13 R pres Barometric pressure [kPa]
14 R rain Rainfall [mm]
15 R kdown Incoming shortwave radiation [W m-2]

Must be > 0 W m-2.

16 O snow Snow [mm]

Required if SnowUse = 1

17 O ldown Incoming longwave radiation [W m-2]
18 O fcld Cloud fraction [tenths]
19 O Wuh External water use [m3]
20 O xsmd Observed soil moisture [m3 m-3 or kg kg-1]
21 O lai Observed leaf area index [m2 m-2]
22 O kdiff Diffuse radiation [W m-2]

Recommended if SOLWEIGUse = 1

23 O kdir Direct radiation [W m-2]

Recommended if SOLWEIGUse = 1

24 O wdir Wind direction [°]Currently not implemented

CBL Related files

Main reference for this part of the model Onomura et al. (2015) and Cleugh and Grimmond (2000).

If CBL slab model is used (CBLuse=1 in RunControl.nml) the following files are needed:

Filename Purpose order Example file
CBL_initial_data.txt give initial data every morning when CBL slab model starts running.
  • filename must match the InitialData_FileName in CBLInput.nml.
fixed format
CBLInput.nml includes the run options, parameters and input file names can be in any order
Sonde or profile data

Benchmark dataset

Site Description Papers Link input data Statistics
Sacramento August *Cleugh and Grimmond (2000) source of data and original model
  • Onomura et al.(2015) Model performance within SUEWS


CBL_initial_data.txt

This file should give initial data every morning when CBL slab model starts running. The file name should match the InitialData_FileName in CBLInput.nml.

Definitions and example file of initial values prepared for Sacramento

zi0 initial convective boundary layer height (m)
gamt_Km vertical gradient of potential temperature (K m-1)
gamq_gkgm vertical gradient of specific humidity (g kg-1 m-1)
Theta+_K potential temperature at the top of CBL (K)
q+_gkg specific humidity at the top of CBL (g kg-1)
Theta_K potential temperature in CBL (K)
q_gkg specific humidiy in CBL (g kg-1)


gamt_Km and gamq_gkgm written to two significant figures are required for the model performance in appropriate ranges Onomura et al. (2015).

id zi0 gamt_Km gamq_gkgm Theta+_K q+_gkg theta_K q_gkg
234 188 0.032 0.00082 290.4 9.6 288.7 8.3
235 197 0.089 0.089 290.2 8.4 288.3 8.7

CBL_Input.nml

Definitions and example file of initial values prepared for Sacramento

Name Explanation Value Source
EntrainmentType Determines an entrainment scheme (see Cleugh and Grimmond 2000) for discusson 1 Tennekes and Driedonks (1981) Recommended
2 McNaughton and Springs (1986)
3 Rayner and Watson (1991)
4 Tennekes (1973)
QH_choice Determines QH used for CBL model. 1 QH values modelled by SUEWS
2 QH values modelled by LUMPS
3 Observed QH values are used from the meteorological input file
Wsb Subsidence velocity (m s-1) in eq. 1 and 2 of Onomura et al. (2015) -0.01 Recommended
CBLday(id) CBL model is used for the days you choose. Set CBLday(id) = 1 e.g. if CBL model is set to run during 175 – 177 (Day of year),

CBLday(175) = 1, CBLday(176) = 1, CBLday(177) = 1

CO2_included In the current version, it should be set to zero.
InitialData_use Determines initial values (zi0, gamt_Km, gamq_gkgm, Theta+_K, q+_gkg, Theta_K and q_gkg) (see CBL_Initial_data.txt). 0 All initial values are calculated. This is NOT available yet in this version.
1 Take zi0, gamt_Km and gamq_gkgm from input data file. Theta+_K, q+_gkg, Theta_K and q_gkg are calculated using Temp_C, avrh and Pres_kPa in meteorological input file.
2 Take all initial values from input data file (see CBL_Initial_data.txt).
InitialData_FileName If InitialData_use ≥ 1, write the file name including the path from site directory e.g. InitialData_FileName='CBLinputfiles\CBL_initial_data.txt'
Sondeflag The data file is prepared for a test run with Sacramento data in example zip folder (see Onomura et al. (2015)) 0 does not read radiosonde vertical profile data. recommend
1 reads radiosonde vertical profile data
FileSonde(id) If sondeflag=1, write the file name including the path from site directory

e.g. FileSonde(id)= 'CBLinputfiles\XXX.txt', XXX is an arbitrary name.

SOLWEIG input files

If the SOLWEIG model output is used (SOLWEIGout=1), spatial data and a SOLWEIGInput.nml file needs to be prepared. The Digital Surface Models (DSMs) as well as derivatives originating from DSMs, e.g. Sky View Factors (SVF) must have the same spatial resolution and extent. Since SOLWEIG is a 2D model it will considerably increase computation time and should be used with care.

Description of choices in SOLWEIGinput_file.nml file. The file can be in any order.

Name Units Explanation/Details/ Description Value Comments
Posture - Determines the posture of a human for which the radiant fluxes should be considered 1 Standing (default)
2 Sitting
absL - Absorption coefficient of longwave radiation of a person. 0.97 Recommended.
absK - Absorption coefficient of shortwave radiation of a person 0.70 Recommended.
heightgravity m Center of gravity for a person 1.1 Recommended for a standing man.
usevegdem - 1 Vegetation scheme is active (Lindberg and Grimmond 2011)
2 No vegetation scheme is used
DSMPath - Path to Digital Surface Models (DSM).
DSMname - Ground and Building DSM
CDSMname - Vegetation canopy DSM
TDSMname - Vegetation trunk zone DSM
TransMin - Tranmissivity of K through decidious vegetation (leaf on) 0.02 Recommended Konarska et al. 2014)
TransMax - Tranmissivity of K through decidious vegetation (leaf off) 0.50 Recommended Konarska et al. 2014)
SVFPath - Path to SVFs matrises. See Lindberg and Grimmond (2011) for details.
SVFsuffix - Suffix used (if any)
buildingname - Boolean matrix for locations of building pixels
row - X coordinate for point of interest. Here all variables from the model will written to SOLWEIGpoiOUT.txt
col - Y coordinate for point of interest. Here all variables from the model will written to SOLWEIGpoiOUT.txt
onlyglobal - Value Comments 1 Diffuse and direct shortwave radiation is calculated from Reindl et al. (1990) 0 Taken from met-inputfile
SOLWEIGpoi_out - write output variables at point of interest (see below)
0 No POI output
Tmrt_out - 1 Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
Lup2d_out - 1 Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
0 No gridI output
Ldown2d_out - Value Comments 1 Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid) 0 No gridI output
Kup2d_out - 1 Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
0 No gridI output
Kdown2d_out - 1 Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
0 No gridI output
GVF_out - 1 Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
0 No gridI output
GVF_out - 1 Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid) 0 No gridI output
SOLWEIG_ldown - Value Comments 1 use SOLWEIG to estimate Ldown above canyon
0 NOT ACTIVE (use SUEWS to estimate Ldown above canyon)
OutInterval min Should be 60. Will change in upcoming versions
RunForGrid - X Grid that SOLWEIG should be runned for

Output files

Error Messages: PROBLEMS.TXT

If there are problems with running the programme an error message will be written to PROBLEMS.TXT. In most cases the programme will stop after that.

We have a large number of error messages included to try and capture common errors to help the user determine what the probable problem is. If you encounter an error that does not provide an error message to Problem.txt please capture the details so we can hopefully provide better error messages.

See [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting] section for help solving problems. If the file paths are not correct the program will return an error when run (see How to run the model).

Model output files

SUEWS produces the main output file (SSss_YYYY_tt.txt) with time resultion (tt min) defined by the model timestep.

Column name Description
1 iy Year [YYYY]
2 id Day of year [DOY]
3 it Hour [H]
4 imin Minute [M]
5 dectime Decimal time [-]
6 kdown Incoming shortwave radiation [W m-2]
7 kup Outgoing shortwave radiation [W m-2]
8 ldown Incoming longwave radiation [W m-2]
9 lup Outgoing longwave radiation [W m-2]
10 Tsurf Surface temperature [°C]
11 qn Net all-wave radiation [W m-2]
12 h_mod Sensible heat flux (calculated using LUMPS) [W m-2]
13 e_mod Latent heat flux (calculated using LUMPS) [W m-2]
14 qs Storage heat flux [W m-2]
15 qf Anthropogenic heat flux [W m-2]
16 qh Sensible heat flux (SUEWS) [W m-2]
17 qe Latent heat flux (SUEWS) [W m-2]
18 p/i Rain [mm]
19 Ie/i External water use in the study area [mm]
20 E/i Evaporation [mm]
21 Dr/i Drainage [mm]
22 St/i Surface state [mm]
23 NWSt/i Land surface state (i.e. Water surface excluded) [mm]
24 surfCh/i Change in surface stores [mm]
25 totCh/i Change in surface and soil stores [mm]
26 RO/i Runoff [mm]
27 ROsoil/i Soil runoff (sub-surface) [mm]
28 ROpipe Runoff received by pipes [mm]
29 ROpav Above ground runoff on paved surfaces [mm]
30 ROveg Above ground runoff on vegetation surfaces [mm]
31 ROwater Runoff occurring through water body [mm]
32 AdditionalWater Water flow received from other grids [mm]
33 FlowChange Difference in input and output flows of water body [mm]
34 WU_int Internal water use [mm]
35 WU_EveTr Water use for irrigation of evergreen trees [mm]
36 WU_DecTr Water use for irrigation of deciduous trees [mm]
37 WU_Grass Water use for irrigation of grass [mm]
38 ra Aerodynamic resistance [s m-1]
39 rs Surface resistance [s m-1]
40 ustar Friction velocity [m s-1]
41 l_mod Modelled Obukhov length [m]
42 fcld Cloud fraction [tenths]
43 SoilSt Soil moisture [mm]
44 smd Soil moisture deficit [mm]
45 SoilSt_Paved Soil moisture deficit of paved surfaces [mm]
46 SoilSt_Bldgs Soil moisture deficit of building surfaces [mm]
47 SoilSt_EveTr Soil moisture deficit of evergreen surfaces [mm]
48 SoilSt_DecTr Soil moisture deficit of deciduous surfaces [mm]
49 SoilSt_Grass Soil moisture deficit of grass surfaces [mm]
50 SoilSt_BSoil Soil moisture deficit of bare soil surfaces [mm]
51 St_Paved State of paved surface [mm]
52 St_Bldgs State of building surface [mm]
53 St_EveTr State of evergreen surface [mm]
54 St_DecTr State of deciduous surface [mm]
55 St_Grass State of grass surface [mm]
56 St_BSoil State of bare soil surface [mm]
57 St_Water State of the water body [mm]
58 LAI Leaf area index [m2 m-2]
59 z0m Roughness lengt for momentum [m]
60 zdm Displacemt height [m]
61 qn1_sf Net all-wave radiation for snow-free area [W m-2]
62 qn1_s Net all-wave radiation for snow surface [W m-2]
63 Qm Snow related heat exchange [W m-2]
64 QmFreez Internal energy change [W m-2]
65 QmRain Heat release by rain on snow [W m-2]
66 SWE Snow water equivalent [mm]
67 Mw Meltwater [mm]
68 Mwstore Meltwater store [mm]
69 SnowRem_Paved Snow removal from paved surfaces [mm]
70 SnowRem_Bldgs Snow removal from buildings [mm]
71 ChSnow/i Change in snowpack [mm]
72 albSnow Snow albedo [-]



SSss_YYYY_SnowOut.txt

The program prints out a separate output file for snow (snowUse = 1 in runcontrol.nml)

File format of SSss_YYYY_Snow_60.txt

Col Header Name Units
1 iy Year
2 id Day of year
3 it Hour -
4 imin Minute -
5 dectime Decimal Time -
6 SWE_Paved Snow water equivalent – paved surface mm
7 SWE_Bldgs Snow water equivalent – building surface mm
8 SWE_EveTr Snow water equivalent – evergreen surface mm
9 SWE_DecTr Snow water equivalent – deciduous surface mm
10 SWE_Grass Snow water equivalent – grass surface mm
11 SWE_BSoil Snow water equivalent – bare soil surface mm
12 SWE_Water Snow water equivalent – water surface mm
13 Mw_Paved Meltwater – paved surface mm h-1
14 Mw_Bldgs Meltwater – building surface mm h-1
15 Mw_EveTr Meltwater – evergreen surface mm h-1
16 Mw_DecTr Meltwater – deciduous surface mm h-1
17 Mw_Grass Meltwater – grass surface mm h-1
18 Mw_BSoil Meltwater – bare soil surface mm h-1
19 Mw_Water Meltwater – water surface mm h-1
20 Qm_Paved Snowmelt related heat – paved surface W m-2
21 Qm_Bldgs Snowmelt related heat – building surface W m-2
22 Qm_EveTr Snowmelt related heat – evergreen surface W m-2
23 Qm_DecTr Snowmelt related heat – deciduous surface W m-2
24 Qm_Grass Snowmelt related heat – grass surface W m-2
25 Qm_BSoil Snowmelt related heat – bare soil surface W m-2
26 Qm_Water Snowmelt related heat – water surface W m-2
27 Qa_Paved Advective heat – paved surface W m-2
28 Qa_Bldgs Advective heat – building surface W m-2
29 Qa_EveTr Advective heat – evergreen surface W m-2
30 Qa_DecTr Advective heat – deciduous surface W m-2
31 Qa_Grass Advective heat – grass surface W m-2
32 Qa_BSoil Advective heat – bare soil surface W m-2
33 Qa_Water Advective heat – water surface W m-2
34 QmFr_Paved Heat related to freezing of surface store – paved surface W m-2
35 QmFr_Bldgs Heat related to freezing of surface store – building surface W m-2
36 QmFr_EveTr Heat related to freezing of surface store – evergreen surface W m-2
37 QmFr_DecTr Heat related to freezing of surface store – deciduous surface W m-2
38 QmFr_Grass Heat related to freezing of surface store – grass surface W m-2
39 QmFr_BSoil Heat related to freezing of surface store – bare soil surface W m-2
40 QmFr_Water Heat related to freezing of surface store – water W m-2
41 fr_Paved Fraction of snow – paved surface -
42 fr_Bldgs Fraction of snow – building surface -
43 fr_EveTr Fraction of snow – evergreen surface -
44 fr_DecTr Fraction of snow – deciduous surface -
45 fr_Gass Fraction of snow – grass surface -
46 Fr_BSoil Fraction of snow – bare soil surface -
47 RainSn_Paved Rain on snow – paved surface mm
48 RainSn_Bdgs Rain on snow – building surface mm
49 RainSn_EveTr Rain on snow – evergreen surface mm
50 RainSn_DecTr Rain on snow – deciduous surface mm
51 RainSn_Grass Rain on snow – grass surface mm
52 RainSn_BSoil Rain on snow – bare soil surface mm
53 RainSn_Water Rain on snow – water surface mm
54 qn_PavedSnow Net all-wave radiation – paved surface W m-2
55 qn_BldgsSnow Net all-wave radiation – building surface W m-2
56 qn_EveTrSnow Net all-wave radiation – evergreen surface W m-2
57 qn_DecTrSnow Net all-wave radiation – deciduous surface W m-2
58 qn_GrassSnow Net all-wave radiation – grass surface W m-2
59 qn_BSoilSnow Net all-wave radiation – bare soil surface W m-2
60 qn_WaterSnow Net all-wave radiation – water surface W m-2
61 kup_PavedSnow Reflected shortwave radiation – paved surface W m-2
62 kup_BldgsSnow Reflected shortwave radiation – building surface W m-2
63 kup_EveTrSnow Reflected shortwave radiation – evergreen surface W m-2
64 kup_DecTrSnow Reflected shortwave radiation – deciduous surface W m-2
65 kup_GrassSnow Reflected shortwave radiation – grass surface W m-2
66 kup_BSoilSnow Reflected shortwave radiation – bare soil surface W m-2
67 kup_WaterSnow Reflected shortwave radiation – water surface W m-2
68 frMelt_Paved Amount of freezing melt water – paved surface mm
69 frMelt_Bldgs Amount of freezing melt water – building surface mm
70 frMelt_EveTr Amount of freezing melt water – evergreen surface mm
71 frMelt_DecTr Amount of freezing melt water – deciduous surface mm
72 frMelt_Grass Amount of freezing melt water – grass surface mm
73 frMelt_BSoil Amount of freezing melt water – bare soil surface mm
74 frMelt_Water Amount of freezing melt water – water surface mm
75 MwStore_Paved Melt water store – paved surface mm
76 MwStore_Bldgs Melt water store – building surface mm
77 MwStore_EveTt Melt water store – evergreen surface mm
78 MwStore_DecTr Melt water store – deciduous surface mm
79 MwStore_Grass Melt water store – grass surface mm
80 MwStore_BSoil Melt water store – bare soil surface mm
81 MwStore_Water Melt water store – water surface mm
82 DensSnow_Paved Snow density – paved surface kg m-3
83 DensSnow_Bldgs Snow density – building surface kg m-3
84 DensSnow_EveTr Snow density – evergreen surface kg m-3
85 DensSnow_DecTr Snow density – deciduous surface kg m-3
86 DensSnow_Grass Snow density – grass surface kg m-3
87 DensSnow_BSoil Snow density – bare soil surface kg m-3
88 DensSnow_Water Snow density – water surface kg m-3
89 Sd_Paved Snow depth – paved surface9 mm
90 Sd_Bldgs Snow depth – building surface mm
91 Sd_EveTr Snow depth – evergreen surface mm
92 Sd_DecTr Snow depth – deciduous surface mm
93 Sd_Grass Snow depth – grass surface mm
94 Sd_BSoil Snow depth – bare soil surface mm
95 Sd_Water Snow depth – water surface mm
96 Tsnow_Paved Snow surface temperature – paved surface °C
97 Tsnow_Bldgs Snow surface temperature – building surface °C
98 Tsnow_EveTr Snow surface temperature – evergreen surface °C
99 Tsnow_DecTr Snow surface temperature – deciduous surface °C
100 Tsnow_Grass Snow surface temperature – grass surface °C
101 Tsnow_BSoil Snow surface temperature – bare soil surface °C
102 Tsnow_Water Snow surface temperature – water surface °C

SSss_DailyState.txt

Contains information about the state of the surface and soil parameters at a time resolution of one day.

Column name Description
1 iy Year [YYYY]
2 id Day of year [DOY]
3 HDD1_h Heating degree days [°C]
4 HDD2_c Cooling degree days [°C]
5 HDD3_Tmean Average daily air temperature [°C]
6 HDT4_T5d 5-day running-mean air temperature [°C]
7 P/day Daily total precipitation [mm]
8 DaysSR Days since rain [days]
9 GDD1_g Growing degree days for leaf growth [°C]
10 GDD2_s Growing degree days for senescence [°C]
11 GDD3_Tmin Daily minimum temperature [°C]
12 GDD4_Tmax Daily maximum temperature [°C]
13 GDD5_DayLHrs Day length [h]
14 LAI_EveTr Leaf area index of evergreen trees [m2 m-2]
15 LAI_DecTr Leaf area index of deciduous trees [m2 m-2]
16 LAI_Grass Leaf area index of grass [m2 m-2]
17 DecidCap Storage capacity of deciduous trees [mm]
18 Porosity Porosity of deciduous trees [-]
19 AlbDec Albedo of deciduous trees [-]
20 WU_EveTr(1) Total water use for evergreen trees [mm]
21 WU_EveTr(2) Automatic water use for evergreen trees [mm]
22 WU_EveTr(3) Manual water use for evergreen trees [mm]
23 WU_DecTr(1) Total water use for deciduous trees [mm]
24 WU_DecTr(2) Automatic water use for deciduous trees [mm]
25 WU_DecTr(3) Manual water use for deciduous trees [mm]
26 WU_Grass(1) Total water use for grass [mm]
27 WU_Grass(2) Automatic water use for grass [mm]
28 WU_Grass(3) Manual water use for grass [mm]
29 deltaLAI Change in leaf area index (normalised 0-1) [-]
30 LAIlumps Leaf area index used in LUMPS (normalised 0-1) [-]
31 albSnow Snow albedo [-]
32 dens_snow_pav Snow density in paved surface
33 dens_snow_bldg Snow density in building surface
34 dens_snow_EveTr Snow density in evergreen surface
35 dens_snow_DecTr Snow density in deciduous surface
36 dens_snow_Grass Snow density in grass surface
37 dens_snow_Sbare Snow density in bare soil
38 dens_snow_wtr Snow density in water surface

SSss_YYYY_BL.txt

Meteorological variables modelled by CBL portion of the model are output in to this file created for each day with time step (see section CBL Input).

CBL model output file format: SSss_YYYY_BL.txt

Col Header Name Units
1 iy Year [YYYY]
2 id Day of year [DoY]
3 it Hour [H]
4 imin Minute [M]
5 dectime Decimal time [-]
6 zi Convectibe boundary layer height m
7 Theta Potential temperature in the inertial sublayer K
8 Q Specific humidity in the inertial sublayer g kg-1
9 theta+ Potential temperature just above the CBL K
10 q+ Specific humidity just above the CBL g kg-1
11 Temp_C Air temperature °C
12 RH Relative humidity %
13 QH_use Sensible heat flux used for calculation W m-2
14 QE_use Latent heat flux used for calculation W m-2
15 Press_hPa Pressure used for calculation hPa
16 avu1 Wind speed used for calculation m s-1
17 ustar Friction velocity used for calculation m s-1
18 avdens Air density used for calculation kg m-3
19 lv_J_kg Latent heat of vaporization used for calculation J kg-1
20 avcp Specific heat capacity used for calculation J kg-1 K-1
21 gamt Vertical gradient of potential temperature K m-1
22 gamq Vertical gradient of specific humidity kg kg-1 m-1

SOLWEIGpoiOut.txt

Calculated variables from POI, point of interest (row, col) stated in SOLWEIGinput.nml.

SOLWEIG model output file format: SOLWEIGpoiOUT.txt

Col Header Name Units
1 id Day of year
2 dectime Decimal time
3 azimuth Azimuth angle of the Sun °
4 altitude Altitude angle of the Sun °
5 GlobalRad Input Kdn W m-2
6 DiffuseRad Diffuse shortwave radiation W m-2
7 DirectRad Direct shortwave radiation W m-2
8 Kdown2d Incoming shortwave radiation at POI W m-2
9 Kup2d Outgoing shortwave radiation at POI W m-2
10 Ksouth Shortwave radiation from south at POI W m-2
11 Kwest Shortwave radiation from west at POI W m-2
12 Knorth Shortwave radiation from north at POI W m-2
13 Keast Shortwave radiation from east at POI W m-2
14 Ldown2d Incoming longwave radiation at POI W m-2
15 Lup2d Outgoing longwave radiation at POI W m-2
16 Lsouth Longwave radiation from south at POI W m-2
17 Lwest Longwave radiation from west at POI W m-2
18 Lnorth Longwave radiation from north at POI W m-2
19 Least Longwave radiation from east at POI W m-2
20 Tmrt Mean Radiant Temperature °C
21 I0 theoretical value of maximum incoming solar radiation W m-2
22 CI clearness index for Ldown (Lindberg et al. 2008)
23 gvf Ground view factor (Lindberg and Grimmond 2011)
24 shadow Shadow value (0= shadow, 1 = sun)
25 svf Sky View Factor from ground and buildings
26 svfbuveg Sky View Factor from ground, buildings and vegetation
27 Ta Air temperature °C
28 Tg Surface temperature °C

SSss_YYYY_ESTM_5.txt

When ESTM model was used (QsChoice ==4 or 14), the output file is created. ESTM output file format

Col Header Name Units
1 iy Year
2 id Day of year
3 it Hour
4 imin Minute
5 dectime Decimal time
6 QSnet Net storage heat flux (QSwall+QSground+QS) W m-2
7 QSair Storage heat flux into air W m-2
8 QSwall Storage heat flux into wall W m-2
9 QSroof Storage heat flux into roof W m-2
10 QSground Storage heat flux into ground W m-2
11 QSibld Storage heat flux into internal elements in buildling W m-2
12 Twall1 Temperature in the first layer of wall (outer-most) K
13 Twall2 Temperature in the first layer of wall K
14 Twall3 Temperature in the first layer of wall K
15 Twall4 Temperature in the first layer of wall K
16 Twall5 Temperature in the first layer of wall (inner-most) K
17 Troof1 Temperature in the first layer of roof (outer-most) K
18 Troof2 Temperature in the first layer of roof K
19 Troof3 Temperature in the first layer of roof K
20 Troof4 Temperature in the first layer of roof K
21 Troof5 Temperature in the first layer of ground (inner-most) K
22 Tground1 Temperature in the first layer of ground (outer-most) K
23 Tground2 Temperature in the first layer of ground K
24 Tground3 Temperature in the first layer of ground K
25 Tground4 Temperature in the first layer of ground K
26 Tground5 Temperature in the first layer of ground (inner-most) K
27 Tibld1 Temperature in the first layer of internal elements K
28 Tibld2 Temperature in the first layer of internal elements K
29 Tibld3 Temperature in the first layer of internal elements K
30 Tibld4 Temperature in the first layer of internal elements K
31 Tibld5 Temperature in the first layer of internal elements K
32 Tabld Air temperature in buildings K

Troubleshooting

How to create a directory?

please search the web using this phrase if you do not know how to create a folder or directory

How to unzip a file

please search the web using this phrase if you do not know how to unzip a file

A Text editor

is a program to edit plain text files. If you search on the web using the phrase ‘text editor’ you will find numerous programs. These include for example, NotePad, EditPad, Text Pad etc

Command prompt

From Start select run –type cmd – this will open a window. Change directory to the location of where you stored your files. The following website may be helpful if you do not know what a command prompt is: http://dosprompt.info/

SUEWSV2015a.exe

this is the actual program

The program is now run using the wrapper version as this prepares the data for the model (more capabilities for this will come with the next version

  1. Website: http://LondonClimate.info

Day of year

January 1st is day 1, February 1st is day 32. If you search on the web using the phrase ‘day of year calendar’ you will find tables that allow rapid conversions. Note remember that in a Leap year the days will be different after February 28th.

First things to Check if the program seems to ahve problems=

  1. Check the PROBLEMS.TXT file====
  2. Look in the output directory for the SS_FileChoices.txt
this allows you to check all options that were used in the run. You may want to compare it with the original supplied version.
  1. Check file options – in RunControl.nml

#A pop-up saying “file path not found"

This means the program cannot find the file paths defined in RunControl.nml file. Possible solutions:
    • Check that you have created the folder that you specified in RunControl.nml.
    • Check does the output directory exist?
    • Check that you have a single or double quote’s around the FileInputPath, FileOutputPath and FileCode

“%sat_vap_press.f temp=0.0000 pressure dectime”

  1. Temperature is zero and in calculation of water vapour pressure parameterization is used. You don’t need to worry if the temperature should be 0°C. If it should not be 0°C this suggests that there is a problem with the data.

%T changed to fit limits

  1. [TL =0.1]/ [TL =39.9] ||You may want to change the coefficients for surface resistance. If you have data from these temperatures, we would happily determine them.

“Reference to undefined variable, array element or function result”

1.Parameter(s) missing from Input files.

See also the error messages provided in Problems.txt

Acknowledgements

  • People who have contributed to the development of SUEWS (plus co-authors of papers):
  • Current contributors:
    • Prof C.S.B. Grimmond (University of Reading; previously Indiana University, King’s College London, UK); Dr Leena Järvi (University of Helsinki, Finland); Shiho Onomura (Göteborg University, Sweden), Dr Helen Ward (University of Reading), Dr Fredrik Lindberg (Göteborg University, Sweden), Dr Andy Gabey (Reading), Dr Ting SUN (Reading)
  • Past Contributors:
    • Dr Brian Offerle, Dr Thomas Loridan (King’s College London)
  • Users who have brought things to our attention to improve this manual and the model:
    • Dr Andy Coutts (Monash University, Australia), Kerry Nice (Monash University, Australia), Shiho Onomura (Göteborg University, Sweden), Dr Stefan Smith (University of Reading, UK), Dr Helen Ward (King’s College London, UK; University of Reading, UK); Duick Young (King’s College London), Dr Ning Zhang (Nanjing University, China)
  • Funding to support development:
    • National Science Foundation (USA, BCS-0095284, ATM-0710631), EU Framework 7 BRIDGE (211345); EU emBRACE; UK Met Office; NERC ClearfLO, NERC TRUC. UK Met Office CSSP /Newton funding

References

  1. Anandakumar K (1999) A study on the partition of net radiation into heat fluxes on a dry asphalt surface. Atmos. Env. 33, 3911-3918.
  2. Asaeda T & Ca VT (1993) The subsurface transport of heat and moisture and its effect on the environment: a numerical model. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 65, 159-178.
  3. Auer AH (1974) The rain versus snow threshold temperatures. Weatherwise, 27, 67.
  4. Businger JA, Wyngaard JC, Izumi Y. & Bradley EF (1971) Flux-Profile Relationships in the Atmospheric Surface Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 181–189.
  5. Campbell G.S. & Norman J.M (1998) Introduction to Environmental Biophysics. Springer Science, US.
  6. Cleugh HA & Grimmond CSB (2001) Modelling regional scale surface energy exchanges and cbl growth in a heterogeneous, urban-rural landscape. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 98, 1-31.
  7. Crawford TM, Duchon CE (1999) An improved parameterization for estimating effective atmospheric emissivity for use in calculating daytime downwelling longwave radiation. Journal of Applied Meteorology 38:474–480.
  8. de Bruin HAR & Holtslag AAM (1982) A simple parameterization of surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat during daytime compared with the Penman–Monteith concept. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 1610–1621.
  9. Doll D, Ching JKS & Kaneshiro J (1985) Parameterisation of subsurface heating for soil and concrete using net radiation data. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 32, 351-372.
  10. Dyer AJ (1974) A review of flux-profile relationships. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 7, 363-372.Fuchs M. & Hadas A. (1972). The heat flux density in a non-homogeneous bare loessial soil. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 3, 191-200.
  11. Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1991) An Evaporation-Interception Model for Urban Areas. Water Resour. Res. 27, 1739-1755.
  12. Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999a) Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 922-940.
  13. Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999b) Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1262-1292.
  14. Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2002) Turbulent Heat Fluxes in Urban Areas: Observations and a Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) J. Appl. Meteorol. 41, 792-810.
  15. Grimmond CSB, Cleugh HA & Oke TR (1991) An objective urban heat storage model and its comparison with other schemes. Atmos. Env. 25B, 311-174.
  16. Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999) Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 922-940.
  17. Halldin S, Grip H & Perttu K (1979) Model for energy exchange of a pine forest canopy. In: Halldin, S. (Ed.), Comparison of Forest Water and Energy Exchange Models. International Society of Ecological Modeling.
  18. Högström U (1988) Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: A re-evaluation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 42, 55–78.
  19. Järvi L, Grimmond CSB & Christen A (2011) The Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): Evaluation in Los Angeles and Vancouver J. Hydrol. 411, 219-237.
  20. Järvi L, Grimmond CSB, Taka M, Nordbo A, Setälä H &Strachan IB (2014) Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities, Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 1691-1711, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014.
  21. Kanda M, Kanega M, Kawai T, Moriwaki R & Sugawara H (2007). Roughness lengths for momentum and heat derived from outdoor urban scale models. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 46, 1067-1079.
  22. Kawai T, Ridwan MK & Kanda M (2009) Evaluation of the simple urban energy balance model using selected data from 1-yr flux observations at two cities. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 48, 693-715.
  23. Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2008) SOLWEIG 1.0 – Modelling spatial variations of 3D radiant fluxes and mean radiant temperature in complex urban settings. International Journal of Biometeorology 52, 697–713.
  24. Lindberg F & Grimmond C (2011) The influence of vegetation and building morphology on shadow patterns and mean radiant temperature in urban areas: model development and evaluation. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 105:3, 311-323.
  25. Loridan T, CSB Grimmond, BD Offerle, DT Young, T Smith, L Järvi, F Lindberg (2011) Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS): longwave radiation parameterization & seasonality related developments. Journal of Applied Meteorology & Climatology 50, 185-202, doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2474.1
  26. MacDonald RW, Griffiths RF & Hall DJ (1998) An improved method for estimation of surface roughness of obstacle arrays. Atmos. Env. 32, 1857-1864.
  27. McCaughey JH (1985) Energy balance storage terms in a mature mized forest at Petawawa Ontario - a case study. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 31, 89-101.
  28. Meyn S. K. (2001) Heat fluxes through roofs and their relevance to estimates of urban heat storage. M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
  29. Narita K, Sekine T & Tokuoka T (1984) Thermal properties of urban surface materials – Study on heat balance at asphalt pavement. Geogr. Rev. Japan 57, 639-651.
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  31. Nunez M (1974) The energy balance of an urban canyon. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver
  32. Offerle B, Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2003) Parameterization of Net All-Wave Radiation for Urban Areas. J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1157-1173.
  33. Offerle B, CSB Grimmond, K Fortuniak 2005: Heat storage & anthropogenic heat flux in relation to the energy balance of a central European city center. International J. of Climatology. 25: 1405–1419 doi: 10.1002/joc.1198
  34. Onomura S, Grimmond CSB, Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2015) Meteorological forcing data for urban outdoor thermal comfort models from a coupled convective boundary layer and surface energy balance scheme Urban Climate,11, 1-23 doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2014.11.001
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  36. Souch C, Grimmond CSB & Wolfe C (1998) Evaporation rates for wetlands with different disturbance histories: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Wetlands 18, 216-229.
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  39. Voogt JA & Grimmond CSB (2000) Modeling surface sensible heat flux using surface radiative temperatures in a simple urban terrain. J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1679-1699.
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Notation

  • In alphabetical order
Definition
italics variables names in the tables
bold input/output filenames
λF frontal area index
ΔQS storage heat flux
BLUEWS Boundary Layer part of SUEWS
Relation between BLUEWS and SUEWS Source: [10]
B coefficient in drainage equation
BLDG Building surface
CBL Convective boundary layer
D0 coefficient in drainage equation
DEM Digital Elevation Model
DSM Digital surface model
DTM Digital Terain Model
DecTr deciduous trees and shrubs
EveTr Evergreen trees and shrubs
ESTM Element Surface Temperature Method (Offerle et al., 2005 [8])
Grass irrigated grass
UnmanBare Umanaged and/or Bare Soil
HL high-latitude
Id day of year
L↓ incoming longwave radiation
LAI Leaf area index. - depends on the local phenology of the area of interest.
LUMPS Local scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme
NARP Net All-wave Radiation Parameterization (Offerle et al. 2003 [17], Loridan et al. 2011 [4])
OHM Objective Hysteresis Model (Grimmond et al. 1991 [18], Grimmond & Oke 1999a[6], 2002[7])
PAV paved surface
Q* net all-wave radiation
QE latent heat flux
QF anthropogenic heat flux
QH sensible heat flux
Q specific humidity
SS two letter code for the measurement site
Ss model area (Grid) identification code
SOLWEIG The solar and longwave environmental irradiance geometry model (Lindberg et al. 2008[12], Lindberg and Grimmond 2011[19])
SVF Sky view factor
theta potential temperature
tt time step of data
UMEP Urban Multi-scale Environmental Predictor
W water surface
WB water balance
YYYY Year
zi Convective boundary layer height
z0m roughness length for momentum

Development

1. [Coding Guidelines] 

Version History

New in SUEWS Version 2016a (released 15 June 2016)

  1. Major changes to the input file formats to facilitate the running of multiple grids or multiple years. Surface characteristics are provided in SiteSelect.txt and other input files are cross-referenced via codes or profile types.
  2. The surface types have been altered.
  • Previously, grass surfaces were entered separately as irrigated grass and unirrigated grass surfaces, whilst the ‘unmanaged’ land cover fraction was assumed by the model to behave as unirrigated grass.
  • There is now a single surface type for grass (total for irrigated plus unirrigated) and a bare soil surface type.
  • The proportion of irrigated vegetation must now be specified (for grass, evergreen trees and deciduous trees individually).
  1. The entire model now runs at a time step specified by the user.
  • Note that 5 min is strongly recommended. (Previously only the water balance calculations were done at 5 min with the energy balance calculations at 60 min).
  1. New suggestions in Troubleshooting section
  2. Edits to the manual
  3. CBL model included.
  4. SUEWS hasve been incorporated into UMEP

New in SUEWS Version 2014b (released 8 October 2014)

These affect the run configuration if previously run with older versions of the model:

  1. New input of three additional columns in the Meteorological input file (diffusive and direct solar radiation, and wind direction)
  2. Change of input variables in InitialConditions.nml file. Note we now refer to CT as ET (ie. Evergreen trees rather than coniferous trees)
  3. In GridConnectionsYYYY.txt, the site names should now be without the underscore (e.g “Sm” and not “Sm_”)

Other issues:

  1. Number of grid areas that can be modelled (for one grid, one year 120; for one grid two years 80)
  2. Comment about Time interval of input data
  3. Bug fix: Column headers corrected in 5 min file
  4. Bug fix: Surface state 60 min file - corrected to give the last 5 min of the hour (rather than cumulating through the hour)
  5. Bug fix: units in the Horizontal soil water transfer
  6. ErrorHints: More have been added to the problems.txt file.
  7. Manual: new section on running the model appropriately
  8. Manual: notation table updated
  9. Possibility to add snow accumulation and melt: new paper

Järvi L, Grimmond CSB, Taka M, Nordbo A, Setälä H, and Strachan IB 2014: Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities, Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 1691-1711, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014.

New in SUEWS Version 2014a.1 (released February 26, 2014)

  1. Please see the large number of changes made in the 2014a release in Appendix C
  2. This is a minor change to address installing the software.
  3. Minor updates to the manual

New in SUEWS Version 2014a (released 21 Feb 2014)

  1. Bug fix: External irrigation is calculated as combined from automatic and manual irrigation and during precipitation events the manual irrigation is reduced to 60% of the calculated values. In previous version of the model, the irrigation was in all cases taken 60% of the calculated value, but now this has been fixed.
  2. In previous versions of the model, irrigation was only allowed on the irrigated grass surface type. Now, irrigation is also allowed on evergreen and deciduous trees/shrubs surfaces. These are not however treated as separate surfaces, but the amount of irrigation is evenly distributed to the whole surface type in the modelled area. The amount of water is calculated using same equation as for grass surface (equation 5 in Järvi et al. 2011), and the fraction of irrigated trees/shrubs (relative to the area of tree/shrubs surface) is set in the gis file (See Table 4.11: SSss_YYYY.gis)
  3. In the current version of the model, the user is able to adjust the leaf-on and leaf-off lengths in the FunctionalTypes. nml file. In addition, user can choose whether to use temperature dependent functions or combination of temperature and day length (advised to be used at high-latitudes)
  4. In the gis-file, there is a new variable Alt that is the area altitude above sea level. If not known exactly use an approximate value.
  5. Snow removal profile has been added to the HourlyProfileSSss_YYYY.txt. Not yet used!
  6. Model time interval has been changed from minutes to seconds. Preferred interval is 3600 seconds (1 hour)
  7. Manual correction: input variable Soil moisture said soil moisture deficit in the manual – word removed
  8. Multiple compiled versions of SUEWS released. There are now users in Apple, Linux and Windows environments. So we will now release compiled versions for more operating systems (section 3).
  9. There are some changes in the output file columns so please, check the respective table of each used output file.
  10. Bug fix: with very small amount of vegetation in an area – impacted Phenology for LUMPS

New in SUEWS Version 2013a

  1. Radiation selection bug fixed
  2. Aerodynamic resistance – when very low - no longer reverts to neutral (which caused a large jump) – but stays low
  3. Irrigation day of week fixed
  4. New error messages
  5. min file – now includes a decimal time column – see Section 5.4 – Table 5.3

New in SUEWS Version 2012b

  1. Error message generated if all the data are not available for the surface resistance calculations
  2. Error message generated if wind data are below zero plane displacement height.
  3. All error messages now written to ‘Problem.txt’ rather than embedded in an ErrorFile. Note some errors will be written and the program will continue others will stop the program.
  4. Default variables removed (see below). Model will stop if any data are problematic. File should be checked to ensure that reasonable data are being used. If an error occurs when there should not be one let us know as it may mean we have made the limits too restrictive.

Contents no longer used File defaultFcld=0.1 defaultPres=1013 defaultRH=50 defaultT=10 defaultU=3 RunControl.nml

  • Just delete lines from file
  • Values you had were likely different from these example value shown here


New in SUEWS Version 2012a

  1. Improved error messages when an error is encountered. Error message will generally be written to the screen and to the file ‘problems.txt’
  2. Format of all input files have changed.
  3. New excel spreadsheet and R programme to help prepare required data files. (Not required)
  4. Format of coef flux (OHM) input files have changed.
    • This allows for clearer identification for users of the coefficients that are actually to be used
    • This requires an additional file with coefficients. These do not need to be adjusted but new coefficients can be added. We would appreciate receiving additional coefficients so they can be included in future releases – Please email Sue. This file replaces the content of Appendix B1
  5. Storage heat flux (OHM) coefficients can be changed by
    • time of year (summer, winter)
    • surface wetness state
  6. New files are written: DailyState.txt
    • Provides the status of variables that are updated on a daily or basis or a snapshot at the end of each day.
  7. Surface Types
    • Clarification of surface types has been made. See GIS and OHM related files

New in SUEWS Version2011b

  1. Storage heat flux (ΔQs) and anthropogenic heat flux (QF) can be set to be 0 W m-2
  2. Calculation of hydraulic conductivity in soil has been improved and HydraulicConduct in SUEWSInput.nml is replaced with name SatHydraulicConduct
  3. Following removed from HeaderInput.nml
    • HydraulicConduct
    • GrassFractionIrrigated
    • PavedFractionIrrigated
    • TreeFractionIrrigated

The lower three are now determined from the water use behaviour used in SUEWS

  1. Following added to HeaderInput.nml
    • SatHydraulicConduct
    • defaultQf
    • defaultQs
  2. If ΔQs and QF are not calculated in the model but are given as an input, the missing data is replaced with the default values.
  3. Added to SAHP input file
    • AHDIUPRF – diurnal profile used if AnthropHeatChoice = 1

V2012a this became obsolete OHM file (SSss_YYYY.ohm)

The OHM file contains information on how the different surface types are taken into account in the calculation of net storage heat flux. That is what values should be used for the parameters in the OHM equation5,6. The possible choices (Table 4.7 old) are followed by examples of OHM files.

Table 4.7-old: Description of choices in SSss_YYYY.ohm file

Statement Choice options Comment Are canyons included [1] Yes [2] No Calculation of the coefficients for canyons [2] Mean [3] Yoshida et al. (1990, 1991) – E-W canyon [4] Nunez (1974) – N-S canyon Line added in the ohm-file only if YES was chosen on the previous line Vegetation is calculated [1] one [2] separated to grass/trees & shrubs/water Calculation of the coefficients for vegetation [1] Mean [2] Mixed forest – McCaughey (1985) [3] Short grass -- Doll et al. (1985) [4] Bare soil -- Novak (1982) [5] Bare soil (wet) -- Fuchs & Hadas (1972) [6] Bare soil (dry) -- Fuchs & Hadas (1972) [7] Bare soil -- Asaeda & Ca (1993) [8] Water Shallow - Turbid -- Souch et al.(1998) If option [1] is NOT used, put as many choices in the following rows as you want to take into account and add zero when finished Calculation of the coefficients for roof [1] Mean of all [2] Tar and gravel -- Yap (1973) [3] Taseler (1980) [4] Yoshida et al. (1990, 1991) [5] Average gravel/tar/conc. flat industrial -- Meyn (2000) [6] Dry -- gravel/tar/conc. flat industrial -- Meyn (2000) [7] Wet -- gravel/tar/conc. flat industrial -- Meyn (2000) [8] Bitumen spread over flat industrial membrane -- Meyn (2000) [9] Asphalt shingle on plywood residential roof – Meyn (2000) [10] Star - high albedo asphalt shingle residential roof -- Meyn (2000) [11] Star - Ceramic Tile -- Meyn (2000) [12] Star - Slate Tile -- Meyn (2000) If option [1] is NOT used, put as many choices in the following rows as you want to take into account and add zero when finished Impervious areas are calculated as [1] one [2] separated to concrete & asphalt Calculation of the coefficients for impervious areas [1] Mean [2] Concrete – Doll et al. (1985) [3] Concrete -- Asaeda & Ca (1993) [4] Asphalt – Narita et al. (1984) [5] Asphalt -- Asaeda & Ca (1993) [6] Asphalt – Anandakumar (1999) [7] Asphalt (winter) – Anandakumar (1999) [8] Asphalt (summer) – Anandakumar (1999) If option [1] is NOT used, put as many choices in the following rows as you want to take into account and add zero when finished The Ln3004_2008.ohm file contained within the example dataset has the following structure.

% # Ln08.ohm % 2 Canyons included: [1] Y [2] N % 2 Vegetation as one [1] Y [2] Separate grass/trees&shrubs/water % 3 Vegetation: [3] Short grass -- Doll et al. (1985) % 4 [4] Bare soil -- Novak (1982) % 0 % 1 Roof: [1] Mean of all % 2 Impervious as one [1] Y [2] Concrete & asphalt separate % 2 Impervious surface: [2] Concrete – Doll et al. (1985) % 4 [4] Asphalt – Narita et al. (1984) % 0

Differences between SUEWS, LUMPS and FRAISE

The largest difference between LUMPS and SUEWS is that the latter simulates the urban water balance in detail while LUMPS takes a simpler approach for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the water balance (“water bucket”). The calculation of evaporation/latent heat in SUEWS is more biophysically based. Due to its simplicity, LUMPS requires less parameters in order to run. SUEWS gives turbulent heat fluxes calculated with both models as an output. The model can run LUMPS alone without running SUEWS (Table 4.1 – SuewsStatus).

Similarities and differences between LUMPS and SUEWS.

LUMPS SUEWS
Net all-wave radiation (Q*) Input or NARP Input or NARP
Storage heat flux (ΔQS) Input or from OHM Input or from OHM
Anthropogenic heat flux (QF) Input or calculated Input or calculated
Latent heat (QE) DeBruin and Holtslag (1982) Penman-Monteith equation2
Sensible heat flux (QH) DeBruin and Holtslag (1982) Residual from available energy minus QE
Water balance No water balance included Running water balance of canopy and water balance of soil
Soil moisture Not considered Modelled
Surface wetness Simple water bucket model Running water balance
Irrigation Only fraction of surface area that is irrigated Input or calculated with a simple model
Surface cover buildings, paved, vegetation buildings, paved, coniferous and deciduous trees/shrubs, irrigated and unirrigated grass


FRAISE Flux Ratio – Active Index Surface Exchange

FRAISE provides an estimate of mean midday (±3 h around solar noon) energy partitioning from information on the surface characteristics and estimates of the mean midday incoming radiative energy and anthropogenic heat release. Please refer to Loridan and Grimmond (2012)[20] for further details.

Topic FRAISE LUMPS SUEWS
Complexity Simplest: FRAISE More complex: SUEWS
Software provided: R code Windows exe (written in Fortran) Windows exe (written in Fortran) - other versions available
Applicable period: Midday (within 3 h of solar noon) hourly 5 min-hourly-annual
Unique features: calculates active surface – and fluxes radiation and energy balances radiation, energy and water balance (includes LUMPS)

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Järvi L, Grimmond CSB & Christen A (2011) The Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): Evaluation in Los Angeles and Vancouver [J. Hydrol. 411, 219-237.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1991) An Evaporation-Interception Model for Urban Areas. Water Resour. Res. 27, 1739-1755.
  3. Offerle B, Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2003) Parameterization of Net All-Wave Radiation for Urban Areas. J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1157-1173.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Loridan T, CSB Grimmond, BD Offerle, DT Young, T Smith, L Järvi, F Lindberg (2011) Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS): longwave radiation parameterization & seasonality related developments. Journal of Applied Meteorology & Climatology 50, 185-202, doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2474.1
  5. Grimmond CSB, Cleugh HA & Oke TR (1991) An objective urban heat storage model and its comparison with other schemes. Atmos. Env. 25B, 311-174.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999a) Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 922-940.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2002) Turbulent Heat Fluxes in Urban Areas: Observations and a Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) J. Appl. Meteorol. 41, 792-810.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Offerle B, CSB Grimmond, K Fortuniak 2005: Heat storage & anthropogenic heat flux in relation to the energy balance of a central European city center. International J. of Climatology. 25: 1405–1419 doi: 10.1002/joc.1198
  9. Cleugh HA & Grimmond CSB (2001) Modelling regional scale surface energy exchanges and cbl growth in a heterogeneous, urban-rural landscape. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 98, 1-31.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Onomura S, Grimmond CSB, Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2015) Meteorological forcing data for urban outdoor thermal comfort models from a coupled convective boundary layer and surface energy balance scheme Urban Climate,11, 1-23 doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2014.11.001
  11. Järvi L, Grimmond CSB, Taka M, Nordbo A, Setälä H &Strachan IB (2014) Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities, Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 1691-1711, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2008) SOLWEIG 1.0 – Modelling spatial variations of 3D radiant fluxes and mean radiant temperature in complex urban settings. International Journal of Biometeorology 52, 697–713.
  13. Lindberg F & Grimmond C (2011) The influence of vegetation and building morphology on shadow patterns and mean radiant temperature in urban areas: model development and evaluation. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 105:3, 311-323.
  14. Allen L, F Lindberg, CSB Grimmond (2011) Global to city scale model for anthropogenic heat flux, International Journal of Climatology, 31, 1990-2005.
  15. Lindberg F, Grimmond CSB, Nithiandamdan Y, Kotthaus S, Allen L (2013) Impact of city changes and weather on anthropogenic heat flux in Europe 1995–2015, Urban Climate,4,1-13 paper
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named J2011
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  19. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named LG2011
  20. Loridan T* & CSB Grimmond 2012: Characterization of energy flux partitioning in urban environments: links with surface seasonal properties J. of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51,219-241 doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-038.1